Strengthening of Existing Single Span Steel Beam and Concrete Deck Bridges, HR-238, Part 1, 1983

(1983) Strengthening of Existing Single Span Steel Beam and Concrete Deck Bridges, HR-238, Part 1, 1983. Transportation, Department of


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The Phase I research, Iowa Department of Transportation (IDOT) Project HR-214, "Feasibility Study of Strengthening Existing Single Span Steel Beam Concrete Deck Bridges," verified that post-tensioning can be used to provide strengthening of the composite bridges under investigation. Phase II research, reported here, involved the strengthening of two full-scale prototype bridges - one a prototype of the model bridge tested during Phase I and the other larger and skewed. In addition to the field work, Phase II also involved a considerable amount of laboratory work. A literature search revealed that only minimal data existed on the angle-plus-bar shear connectors. Thus, several specimens utilizing angle-plus-bar, as well as channels, studs and high strength bolts as shear connectors were fabricated and tested. To obtain additional shear connector information, the bridge model of Phase I was sawed into four composite concrete slab and steel beam specimens. Two of the resulting specimens were tested with the original shear connection, while the other two specimens had additional shear connectors added before testing. Although orthotropic plate theory was shown in Phase I to predict vertical load distribution in bridge decks and to predict approximate distribution of post-tensioning for right-angle bridges, it was questioned whether the theory could also be used on skewed bridges. Thus, a small plexiglas model was constructed and used in vertical load distribution tests and post-tensioning force distribution tests for verification of the theory. Conclusions of this research are as follows: (1) The capacity of existing shear connectors must be checked as part of a bridge strengthening program. Determination of the concrete deck strength in advance of bridge strengthening is also recommended. (2) The ultimate capacity of angle-plus-bar shear connectors can be computed on the basis of a modified AASHTO channel connector formula and an angle-to-beam weld capacity check. (3) Existing shear connector capacity can be augmented by means of double-nut high strength bolt connectors. (4) Post-tensioning did not significantly affect truck load distribution for right angle or skewed bridges. (5) Approximate post-tensioning and truck load distribution for actual bridges can be predicted by orthotropic plate theory for vertical load; however, the agreement between actual distribution and theoretical distribution is not as close as that measured for the laboratory model in Phase I. (6) The right angle bridge exhibited considerable end restraint at what would be assumed to be simple support. The construction details at bridge abutments seem to be the reason for the restraint. (7) The skewed bridge exhibited more end restraint than the right angle bridge. Both skew effects and construction details at the abutments accounted for the restraint. (8) End restraint in the right angle and skewed bridges reduced tension strains in the steel bridge beams due to truck loading, but also reduced the compression strains caused by post-tensioning.

Item Type: Departmental Report
Keywords: Bridges, Composite structures, Fasteners, Field tests, Guides to the literature, Laboratory tests, Literature reviews, Load transfer, Orthotropic plates, Posttensioning, Prototypes, Shear reinforcement, Skew bridges, Strain (Mechanics), Strength of materials, Strengthening (Maintenance), Composite bridges, End restraint, Shear connectors
Subjects: Transportation
Transportation > Bridges and tunnels
Transportation > Roads and highways
Transportation > Design and Construction
ID Code: 16224
Deposited By: Iowa DOT Library
Deposited On: 05 Mar 2014 13:47
Last Modified: 11 Aug 2015 12:01