1999 Annual Report
 

February 1, 2000


The Honorable Thomas Vilsack

Governor of Iowa

State Capitol

Des Moines, Iowa

 

Dear Governor Vilsack:

On behalf of the members and staff of the Iowa Board of Parole, I am pleased to submit our Annual Report for State Fiscal Year 1999.

During State Fiscal Year 1999 the Board approved 1,067 work release applications and 3,114 paroles. The Board has clearly worked diligently to protect the public. Of the 6,377 individuals on parole caseloads during the year, only 373 (5.85 percent) were revoked, of which six (0.09 percent) were for new forcible felonies. While 23,731 paroles have been granted since July of 1989, only 105 (0.4%) have resulted in revocation for new forcible felonies.

This year’s report builds on the expanded report prepared for Fiscal Year 1998, as the Board is attempting to provide a more complete understanding of its workload and the environment in which it functions. We have included additional historical data to permit an understanding of parole trends and have added a new chapter on recidivism among parolees and those who expire their sentences. Among the findings of the study are that parolees have lower recidivism rates than those who expire their sentences, and that misdemeanants tend to have higher recidivism rates than felons.

During the past year the Board of Parole continued its efforts to use technology to assist in its efforts to protect the public and respond to the needs of victims. With its innovative use of the Iowa Communications Network (ICN), the Board has been able to dramatically increase efficiency in considering parole while also considering the wishes of registered victims. The ICN has been of great assistance in our effort to increase paroles in FY99. The ICN also allows us to conduct revocation hearings and offer public education throughout Iowa without leaving our own conference room.

We have also continued an experimental project in the Sixth Judicial District, using the Administrative Parole Judge to conduct probation revocation hearings, thus reducing the workload of criminal court judges and increasing consistency in revocation proceedings. A recent court decision has legitimized the use of administrative law judges in the probation revocation process, and we anticipate increased judicial efficiency as this practice continues.

Respectfully submitted,

 

Charles W. Larson

Chairperson

TABLE OF CONTENTS

I. HIGHLIGHTS *

II. MISSION STATEMENT *

III. AGENCY OVERVIEW *

IV. BOARD RESPONSIBILITIES *

V. IOWA COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK *

VI. THE PRISON POPULATION *

VII. SIXTH JUDICIAL DISTRICT PROBATION PROJECT *

VIII. TIME SERVED PRIOR TO PAROLE *

IX. PAROLE REVOCATION *

X. Recidivism *

XI. VICTIM SERVICES *

APPENDIX I. Average Length of Stay in Months Until Parole, by Offense Class *

APPENDIX II. Length of Stay in Months Until Parole for Selected Offenses, FY90-FY99 *

APPENDIX III. Decisions by Offense Class and Risk, FY99 *

APPENDIX IV. FY 1999 Decisions by Risk *

Appendix V. Average Time Served in Months Prior to Parole, by Risk and Offense Class, FY99 *

APPENDIX VI. Expiration of Sentences & Paroles Granted: FY99 *

APPENDIX VII. Parolee and Expiration Recidivism, FY96 Releases *

I. HIGHLIGHTS

  • The membership of the Board of Parole in FY99 was changed with the addition of new Board member Karen Muelhaupt. In the fall of 1999 the Board’s final vacancy was filled with the addition of Rev. Rogers Kirk, Jr. Clarence Key, Jr., was also appointed new Executive Director of the Board in November, 1999.
  • The Board in FY99 approved 1,067 work release applications and 3,114 paroles. Of the 6,377 individuals on parole caseloads during the year, only 373 were revoked, with six of these revocations due to new forcible felonies.
  • Of all those paroled since July 1, 1989, only 17.3 percent have been revoked from parole. Less than one percent have been revoked for committing new forcible felonies.
  • Parolees released in FY96 showed a felony re-conviction rate of 12.9 percent after a three-year follow-up, compared to 17.1 percent among prisoners who expired their sentences. Misdemeanor re-conviction rates were also lower among parolees than among expirations. Released felons were most likely to be convicted of new felonies, while misdemeanants were likely to be convicted of new misdemeanors.
  • In FY99 the Board continued its innovative use of the Iowa Communications Network, which enables the board to maximize productive use of its time and permit interested parties the opportunity to view parole hearings without extensive travel. The Board continued extensive use of the ICN in conducting hearings in FY98, and the families of victims and inmates also attended hearings via the ICN.
  • The Board continued to expand its list of registered victims, ensuring that victims are notified of parole, work release, and revocation hearings, and providing them the opportunity for input in the deliberative process.
  • The Board continued an experiment in the Sixth Judicial District, using the Senior Administrative Parole Judge for all probation revocation hearings, thereby providing additional consistency in these proceedings. The legality of using administrative judges to handle probation revocations was upheld in a Linn County District Court ruling in September, 1999.
  • The Board continued its use of risk assessment in granting or denying work release or parole. This tool has enabled the Board to better protect the public while not delaying release for inmates who are good risks.
  • The board continued using the Violator Program as an intermediate sanction for parolees and work releases who need additional supervision but who do not need to be revoked. The existence of this program helps to individualize treatment and supervision regimens and provide a wider range of alternatives for those having difficulty on parole or work release.

 


II. MISSION STATEMENT

Objectives

  • Comprehensive and efficient consideration for parole and work release of offenders committed to the Department of Corrections.
  • Expeditious revocation of paroles of persons who violate release conditions.
  • Careful consideration of victim opinions concerning the release of offenders and prompt notification to victims of Board of Parole release decisions.
  • Cautious discharge of law-abiding parolees from supervision. Quality advice to the Governor in matters relating to executive clemency.
  • Timely research and analysis of issues critical to the performance of the Board of Parole.

 

III. AGENCY OVERVIEW

The Iowa Board of Parole consists of five members appointed by the Governor. The chairperson and vice-chair are full-time salaried members of the Board. Four members, whose terms are staggered, serve four years on a per diem basis.

Iowa law states that the membership of the Board must be of good character and judicious background, must include a member of a minority group, may include a person ordained or designated a regular leader of a religious community and who is knowledgeable in correctional procedures and issues, and must meet at least two of the following three requirements:

1) contain one member who is a disinterested lay person;

2) contain one member who is an attorney licensed to practice law in this state and who is knowledgeable in correctional procedures and issues;

3) contain one member who is a person holding at least a master’s degree in social work or counseling and guidance and who is knowledgeable in correctional procedures and issues.

 

BOARD OF PAROLE MEMBERSHIP

CHARLES W. LARSON, Chairperson, Cedar Rapids. Larson was appointed to the Board of Parole in May, 1998 after serving as Iowa’s Drug Policy Coordinator since 1993. This is his second term with the Board of Parole. Larson also served for seven years as United States Attorney for the Northern District of Iowa. He spent from 1979 to 1982 in Saudi Arabia as a consultant to the Kingdom’s Highway Patrol Project. From 1973 to 1979 he served as Iowa’s Commissioner of Public Safety. Larson retired as a colonel from the Active Army Reserves.

ELIZABETH ROBINSON-FORD, Vice Chairperson, Davenport. Robinson-Ford was appointed to the Board in November, 1994, and appointed Vice-Chairperson in 1999. She was also recently appointed to serve on the Iowa Prisoner Minority Over-Representation Task Force. Robinson-Ford has worked for the City of Shreveport, Louisiana, as an Administrative Assistant and Records Specialist for the Police Department. She is a member of the Minority Chamber of Commerce, the Iowa Invests Mentor Program, the Juvenile Justice Committee, Big Sisters, and United Way. She has an Associate Degree in Applied Sciences from Southern University at Shreveport and an Associate Degree in Business Administration/Accounting from Commercial Business College in Alexandria, Louisiana. She retired as Administrative Assistant with the Scott County Decategorization Program in 1999.

CURTIS S. JENKINS, West Des Moines. Jenkins was appointed to the Board of Parole by Governor Terry Branstad in 1997. Jenkins has BS from Southern Illinois University. He is the Business Manager of the Corinthian Baptist Church, Member of Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, Des Moines Alumni, and is President of KAPSI Foundation. Jenkins served in the United States Air Force. His volunteer work includes Internal Audit Committee and Tax Return Preparation for the Corinthian Baptist Church; he is on-call Consultant for Mid-City Business Center; Speaker, Panel of Americans, NCCJ; and Speaker on Diversity.

 

KAREN KAPLAN MUELHAUPT, Des Moines. Governor Thomas Vilsack appointed Muelhaupt to the Board of Parole in 1999. She received her BA degree from Drake University in 1988. She worked for the Department of Corrections as a Pre-sentence investigator from 1975-1985. In 1985, she was hired as a rape counselor with Polk County Victim Services. She co-created one of the nations first Homicide Crisis Response teams, and in 1997 was the recipient of the Presidential Crime Victims award. She retired in 1998. Muelhaupt is a licensed Social Worker.

ROGERS KIRK, JR., Davenport. Kirk was appointed to the Board in November, 1999. For the past four years he has been the Pastor of the Third Missionary Baptist Church of Davenport. Pastor Kirk is President of the Iowa Congress of Christian Education, Dean of the Eastern District Association, Instructor in the National Congress of Christian Education, and Instructor at the American Baptist Theological Seminary. He is also past-president of the NAACP Metro-Com Branch, Quad City Interfaith and serves on many state and local boards. Pastor Kirk attended Northeast Louisiana University and has served parishes in Monroe and Ruston, Louisiana.

BOARD STAFF

Clarence Key, Jr., Executive Director. The Board of Parole selected Clarence Key, Jr., as its Executive Director in November, 1999. Key has a BA degree in Criminal Justice from Simpson College and has worked in state government well over twenty years. Mr. Key has served as a probation officer for the 5th Judicial District Department of Correctional Services, as an Assistant for Corrections (Prison Ombudsman) for the Citizen's Aide Ombudsman, and as a Justice Systems Analyst for the Division of Criminal and Juvenile Justice Planning. Key also currently serves as an executive board member of the Des Moines Branch of the NAACP and has been president of the Iowa Corrections Association (1993-1994).

Richard E. George, Administrative Law Judge

James C. Twedt, Senior Administrative Parole/Probation Judge

Jerry Menadue, Liaison Officer

Heather Hackbarth, Statistical Research Analyst

Karen Myers, Executive Officer

Lori Myers, Case Coordinator and Liaison Officer

Diane Jay, Victim Coordinator

Jo McGrane, Administrative Secretary

Carol Edmonston, Clerk

Virginia Shannon, Clerk

Paul Stageberg, Ph.D., Report Consultant

The Board wishes to extent its appreciation to Paul Stageberg, Ph.D., for his assistance in analysis of data and preparation of this report.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This project was supported by Grant number 99C2-1951, awarded by the Governor’s Alliance on Substance Abuse (GASA). Points of view in this document are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the official position or policies of either GASA or the U.S. Department of Justice.

 

IV. BOARD RESPONSIBILITIES

Inmate Reviews and Interviews. By law, the Board systematically reviews the status of each person committed to the custody of the Director of the Iowa Department of Corrections and considers the person’s prospects for parole or work release. The Board reviews at least annually the status of persons other than Class A felons, Class B felons serving time under the 95% law or felons serving mandatory minimum sentences. The Board also provides the person written notice of its parole or work release decision.

Not less than twenty days prior to conducting a hearing at which the Board interviews the person, the Board notifies the Department of Corrections of the scheduling of the interview. The Department then makes the person available to the Board at the person’s institutional residence.

Risk Assessment. The Board has used offender risk assessment since March, 1981. Its use has enabled the Board to increase paroles while maintaining a high degree of public safety. An offender is rated on a scale from one to nine.

Victim Notification. The Board notifies registered victims of violent crimes of upcoming interviews with identified offenders and of decisions made at those interviews. The victim or appointed counsel has the right to attend the interviews and testify. In addition, all written communications from victims become a permanent part of offenders’ files.

Parole. The Board is empowered to grant, rescind, and revoke parole, as well as discharge offenders from parole. The Board decides the conditions of parole which may be added to by the supervising Judicial District. In order to be granted parole, those receiving a parole risk score of one through six require three affirmative votes from the Board; a risk score of seven or eight requires four votes; and a risk score of nine requires all five votes.

Work Release. The Board is empowered to grant or rescind work release. Work release periods are approximately six months, but may be adjusted through Board action.

Review of Parole and Work Release Programs. The Board is required to review parole and work release programs being instituted or considered nationwide and determine which programs may be useful for Iowa. Each year the Board also reviews current parole and work release programs and procedures used in the State of Iowa.

Release Studies. The Board is required to conduct studies of the parole and work release system as requested by the Governor and the General Assembly.

Review of Computer System. The Board is required to increase utilization of data processing and computerization to assist in the orderly operation of the parole and work release system.

 

BOARD WORKLOAD

The information contained in this section provides a statistical summary of the Board’s workload for fiscal year 1999. As the tables and charts on the following pages indicate, the Board conducted a total of 10,006 release deliberations. These deliberations resulted in the Board’s granting 3,114 paroles and 1,067 work releases. The majority of parole and work release grants were derived from case reviews rather than inmate interviews.

In FY99 the Board continued taking particular care in paroling inmates convicted of crimes against persons. While 30 percent of the 8,129 deliberations involving felons resulted in paroles, only 10.4 percent of those involving felonies against persons resulted in paroles. Those convicted of crimes against persons were also less likely to be granted work release.

Parole revocation hearings totaled 543 in FY99, compared to 515 in fiscal year 1998. Of the total hearings, 373 resulted in revocation of parole. Eighty-four of these (or 22.5%) were automatic revocations due to new convictions for felonies or aggravated misdemeanors. Rescission reviews, which involve consideration to rescind a parole or work release grant prior to actual release from prison, totaled 156; all were rescinded. Three of the 156 parole rescissions were due to refusals by inmates. Out of 101 work release rescissions, 32 were refused.

Reviews of applications for restoration of citizenship totaled 578, with 524 (90.7%) recommended to the Governor. Both these figures were down somewhat from FY98, when there were 685 reviews and 610 (89.1%) recommendations.

The Board reviewed 43 appeals from inmates requesting reconsideration of prior decisions resulting from revocation hearings. Also, the number of offenders receiving simultaneous parole and discharge totaled 339. Since May 1, 1991, the number of discharges processed by the Board has dropped significantly because each district Director of Correctional Services may also process discharges. Consequently, for FY98 the Board processed 408 total discharges.

The research division completed 2,909 offender risk assessments in FY 1999, compared to 2,761 in FY98 and 2,032 in FY97. As shown in the appendix, the Board makes consistent use of these assessments in determining whether to approve or deny parole or place inmates on work release.

Also, the victim coordinator reviewed 369 victim requests and mailed 1,767 notices to registered victims. The total number of registered victims at the end of FY99 was 2,854, compared to 2,579 in FY98 and 2,267 in FY97.

The table and graphs on the following pages show the workload of the Board and staff members for FY 1999.

 

Table I. Performance Summary, FY 1998 & FY 1999

FY1998

FY1999

% Change

RELEASE DELIBERATIONS:

9,297

10,006

7.6%

INMATE INTERVIEWS

1,464

1,609

9.9%

Paroles Granted

488

754

54.5%

Work Release Granted

334

313

-6.3%

CASE REVIEWS

7,833

8,397

7.2%

Paroles Granted

2,111

2,532

19.9%

Work Release Granted

760

582

-23.4%

REVOCATIONS/RESCISSIONS:

PAROLE REVOCATION HEARINGS

515

543

5.4%

Parole Revocations

383

373

-2.6%

Automatic Revocations

108

84

-22.2%

PAROLE RESCISSION REVIEWS

141

156

10.6%

Paroles Rescinded

141

156

10.6%

WORK RELEASE RESCISSION REVIEWS

80

101

26.3%

Work Releases Rescinded

80

101

26.3%

REVOCATION APPEALS

23

13

-43.5%

Affirmed

14

10

-28.6%

Other

9

3

-66.7%

EXECUTIVE CLEMENCY REQUESTS:

400

--

Granted

360

--

Denied

40

--

LIFER INTERVIEWS

0

0

--

Commutations Recommended

0

0

--

PARDON REVIEWS

21

29

38.1%

Pardons Recommended

5

17

240.0%

RESTORATION OF CITIZENSHIP REVIEWS

685

578

-15.6%

Restorations Recommended

610

524

-14.1%

OTHER REVIEWS:

Inmate Board Decision Appeals

41

43

4.9%

Parole to Discharge

458

339

-26.0%

OTHER BOARD WORK:

Risk Assessments completed

2,761

2,909

5.4%

Registered Victims, Yearend

2,579

2,854

10.7%

Victim Registration Requests

372

369

-0.8%

Victim Notices Mailed

1,694

1,767

4.3%

Table II. Parole and Work Release Grants, FY92-FY99

Year

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

% Change

Parole Grants

2,208

2,301

2,417

2,425

2,436

2,449

2,599

3,114

41.0%

Work Release Grants

768

895

914

939

967

879

1,094

1,067

38.9%

 

 

Table III. Decisions by Offense Class, FY99

Parole Release

Work Release

Release Denied

Total

Offense Class

N

%

N

%

N

%

N

%

Compact Felony not person

0.0%

0.0%

7

100.0%

7

0.1%

Compact Felony Total

0.0%

0.0%

7

100.0%

7

0.1%

Other Felony not person

28

43.8%

5

7.8%

31

48.4%

64

0.6%

Other Felony Total

28

43.8%

5

7.8%

31

48.4%

64

0.6%

Habitual vs. person

13

18.3%

10

14.1%

48

67.6%

71

0.7%

Habitual not person

37

18.5%

28

14.0%

135

67.5%

200

2.0%

Habitual Total

50

18.5%

38

14.0%

183

67.5%

271

2.7%

B Felony vs. person

48

4.9%

37

3.7%

903

91.4%

988

9.9%

B Felony not person

15

18.1%

11

13.3%

57

68.7%

83

0.8%

B Felony Total

63

5.9%

48

4.5%

960

89.6%

1,071

10.7%

C Felony vs. person

150

12.2%

119

9.6%

965

78.2%

1,234

12.3%

C Felony not person

670

33.3%

320

15.9%

1,022

50.8%

2,012

20.1%

C Felony Total

820

25.3%

439

13.5%

1,987

61.2%

3,246

32.5%

D Felony vs. person

91

14.9%

62

10.2%

456

74.9%

609

6.1%

D Felony not person

1,623

44.5%

431

11.8%

1,590

43.6%

3,644

36.4%

D Felony Total

1,714

40.3%

493

11.6%

2,046

48.1%

4,253

42.5%

Old Code vs. person

2

12.5%

3

18.8%

11

68.8%

16

0.2%

Old Code not person

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

1

100.0%

1

0.0%

Old Code Total

2

11.8%

3

17.6%

12

70.6%

17

0.2%

Total Felonies vs. person

304

10.4%

231

7.9%

2,383

81.7%

2,918

29.2%

Total Felonies not person

2,373

39.5%

795

13.2%

2,843

47.3%

6,011

60.1%

Total Felonies

2,677

30.0%

1,026

11.5%

5,226

58.5%

8,929

89.3%

Agg. Misd. vs. person

69

24.5%

5

1.8%

208

73.8%

282

2.8%

Agg. Misd. not person

349

47.2%

36

4.9%

354

47.9%

739

7.4%

Agg. Misdemeanor Total

418

40.9%

41

4.0%

562

55.0%

1,021

10.2%

Serious Misd. vs. person

4

28.6%

0

0.0%

10

71.4%

14

0.1%

Ser. Misd. Not person

14

40.0%

0

0.0%

21

60.0%

35

0.4%

Serious Misdemeanor Total

18

33.3%

5

9.3%

31

57.4%

54

0.5%

Simple Misdemeanor

1

100.0%

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

1

0.0%

Total Misd. vs. person

73

24.7%

5

1.7%

218

73.6%

296

3.0%

Total Misd. Not person

364

47.0%

36

4.6%

375

48.4%

775

7.8%

Total Misdemeanors

436

40.6%

46

4.3%

593

55.2%

1,075

10.8%

All Crimes vs. person

377

11.7%

236

7.3%

2,601

80.9%

3,214

32.1%

All Crimes not person

2,737

40.3%

831

12.2%

3,218

47.4%

6,786

67.9%

Total All Crimes

3,114

31.1%

1,067

10.7%

5,819

58.2%

10,000

100.0%

6 cases missing; file contains no persons/non-persons designation

Note: Parole release, work release, and denied column percentages add up horizontally. Total

column percentages add up vertically.

 


As is suggested in the chart above, expiration of sentence has played an increasing role as a means of exit from Iowa’s prison population. This is due primarily to the Board’s belief that there are certain types of offenders from whom the public must be protected as long as possible. While the Board supports the concept of supervision after release from prison, it is thought that maintaining some offenders as long as possible in a secure environment will contribute to public safety. To illustrate the variation among offender types in release practices, Table IV is presented below:

Table IV. Paroles and Expirations, by Offense Class and type, FY1999

Offense Class and Type

Expirations

Paroles

Expir. %

Total Class B Felony

12

63

16.0%

Total Class C Felony, Persons

58

168

25.7%

Total Class C Felony, Non-persons

65

652

9.1%

Total Class C Felony

123

820

13.0%

Total Class D Felony, Persons

78

85

47.9%

Total Class D Felony, Non-persons

276

1629

14.5%

Total Class D Felony

354

1714

17.1%

Total Other Felonies

4

80

4.8%

Total All Felonies

493

2677

15.6%

Total Aggravated Misdem., Persons

103

67

60.6%

Total Aggravated Misd, Non-persons

159

351

31.2%

Total Aggravated Misdemeanor

262

418

38.5%

Total Serious Misdemeanor, Persons

10

3

76.9%

Total Serious Misdem., Non-persons

17

16

51.5%

Total All Misdemeanors

289

437

39.8%

Grand Total

782

3,114

20.1%

Readers interested in an expanded version of this table are urged to consult Appendix VI, which lists paroles, expirations, and expiration percentages by offense.

 

 

V. IOWA COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK

On July 14, 1994, the Board began to make use of the new Iowa Communications Network (ICN) to manage the State’s prison population more effectively and efficiently.

The ICN is a statewide two-way full motion fiber optic communication network that uses modern technology to connect points throughout all of Iowa’s ninety-nine counties. This network facilitates a variety of Board functions including parole interviews, registered victim input, and parole revocation hearings. Further, the ICN has allowed criminal justice students and the public to observe actual interviews of inmates being considered for parole or work release.

The ICN has been used as an educational tool in high schools across Iowa.

Iowa is the first state in the Nation to use its fiber optics system for monthly parole interviews. Since its initial use of the system in July of 1994, the Board experienced few difficulties with the ICN; the benefits (i.e., cost effectiveness, reduced travel time, and ease of use) have generated positive reactions from the Board, the media, the public, and other states. Inmates and family members have also expressed support for participation in the interview process via the ICN.

With the completion of its own classroom in October, 1995, the Board greatly increased its use of the ICN in the parole process. The Board no longer needs to prepare volumes of inmate files for transport to an ICN classroom; files are reviewed from the Board’s conference room. Thus, transportation and security concerns regarding inmate files have been greatly reduced.

Prior to ICN, victims desiring input were required to travel to a distant institution, were subjected to a rigorous security check, and were possibly seated in the same room as the inmate’s family and friends. With the creation of the Board’s TeleVictim Program, a registered victim is notified of the intended release hearing and is directed to an ICN site near the victim’s home. The victim travels to the local site, provides input, and returns home. The process often requires a few minutes instead of many hours under the old process. Further, the ICN separates victims from inmates, families, and friends and helps defuse potentially tense situations. The incorporation of the registered victim input process via the ICN continues to be a model for parole board interaction with registered victims.

Four hundred fifty-two parole revocation hearings have been conducted via the ICN since July of 1994. Prior to the creation of the ICN, parole revocation hearings required travel to counties where the alleged parole violation occurred, which could involve as many as four hours of travel one-way. With the advent of ICN, the Parole Judge travels to a nearby ICN classroom, conducts the hearings, determines violations and appropriate sanctions, and proceeds to the next case.

 

Table v. Mileage Saved by ICN

Board Meetings

Revocations

Victims

Families

Fiscal Year

Mileage

Hours

Mileage

Hours

Mileage

Hours

Mileage

Hours

1995

6,444

128.9

11,590

231.8

3,306

66.1

5,344

106.9

1996

6,081

121.6

22,666

453.3

1,285

25.7

5,951

119.0

1997

7,416

148.3

16,726

334.5

2,480

49.6

6,016

120.3

1998

11,608

232.2

17,682

353.6

5,317

106.3

24,746

494.9

1999

10,506

210.1

17,432

348.6

3,666

73.3

15,768

315.4

Note: hours were calculated as mileage divided by 50. Mileage for Board meetings and revocations calculated as the distance between Des Moines and the institution in which hearings were held. Mileage for victims and families developed by identifying victims and families who attended ICN hearings, locating their place of residence, and calculating the distance between there and the site of the hearing.

 

The Board plans continued use of such technological advances as the ICN as it strives to protect the public from serious crime.

Table VI. ICN Hearings, Interviews, and Costs, by Fiscal Year

Fiscal Year

Hearings

Interviews

Costs

1995

68

286

$3,385.70

1996

84

262

$7,348.25

1997

81

314

$8,798.00

1998

79

747

$7,883.21

1999

140

865

$10,613.08

 

 

 

VI. THE PRISON POPULATION

This section is included because, while boards of parole have some control over output from prisons, they have little control over input to prisons. Although boards of parole may have some impact on the nature of the prison population through paroling activity (e.g., through either hastening or delaying release of certain types of prisoners), by and large the prison population is a "given" with which a board must work.

Table VII shows the make-up of Iowa’s prison population on June 30, 1999, dividing the population into offense classes and persons/non-persons groups. The largest portion of the population is serving time for Class C and Class D felonies (ten-year and five-year maximums) which are not against persons. The only other category of offense accounting for more than ten percent of the population is Class B felonies against persons (principally robbery in the first degree).

TABLE VII. PRISON POPULATION BY OFFENSE TYPE

6/30/99

NON PERSONS OFFENSES

PERSONS OFFENSES

TOTAL

OFFENSE CLASS

N

%

N

%

N

%

Class A Felony

0

0.0%

473

100.0%

473

6.6%

Class B Felony

172

15.1%

969

84.9%

1,141

15.9%

Other Felony

275

84.4%

51

15.6%

326

4.5%

Class C Felony

1,489

58.1%

1,073

41.9%

2,562

35.7%

Class D Felony

1,704

80.0%

426

20.0%

2,130

29.7%

Agg. Misdemeanor

250

60.4%

164

39.6%

414

5.8%

Ser. Misdemeanor

10

43.5%

13

56.5%

23

0.3%

Violator Program

88

85.4%

15

14.6%

103

1.4%

All Inmates

3,988

55.6%

3,184

44.4%

7,172

100.0%

Source: ACIS. Excludes 59 compact/safekeepers.

Table VIII, below, presents data on the length of sentences of inmates in residence on June 30 going back to 1990. The table shows increases in each category, but larger increases in unknowns (not a significant group) and the shorter sentences. Three of the four groups showing percentage increases greater than the overall population increase are shorter sentences: those of less than two years (again, not a significant group), those serving two years to less than five, and five years to less than ten. This does not suggest the "hardening" of the prison population, about which there has been much speculation in recent years. It may, however, suggest either a greater likelihood on the part of judges to incarcerate aggravated misdemeanants and Class D felons or a higher rate of failure among probationers in those categories (these data don’t distinguish between direct court commitments and probation revocations).

 

TABLE VIII. JUNE 30 SENTENCE LENGTH OF PRISON POPULATION

Sentence Length

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

% Chng

Less than 2 years

13

18

32

20

38

22

24

29

35

29

123.1%

2 years-less than 5

195

185

219

252

280

296

334

372

448

411

110.8%

5 years-less than 10

790

847

885

1,103

1,187

1,552

1,807

1,998

2,284

2,127

169.2%

10 years-less than 15

1,711

1,776

1,898

1,967

1,937

2,178

2,237

2,342

2,615

2,574

50.4%

15 years-less than 20

114

130

148

171

164

194

210

226

244

242

112.3%

20 years-less than 50

533

550

592

647

708

809

870

944

1,020

1,061

99.1%

50 years or more

397

417

455

477

499

538

575

623

651

655

65.0%

Unknown

89

154

256

58

277

103

119

192

134

132

48.3%

Total Population

3,842

4,077

4,485

4,695

5,090

5,692

6,176

6,726

7,431

7,231

88.2%

Source: Department of Corrections E-1 Reports.

Table VIII also shows that, since FY1990, Iowa’s prison population has risen 88.2%, or slightly under ten percent per year. The Bureau of Justice Statistics reports that nationally, prison populations increased an average of 6.0 percent each year from 1990 to 1998. While prison populations have risen steadily throughout the Nation since 1990, Iowa’s increase has clearly eclipsed the national average; according to BJS, Iowa’s increase from 1990 to 1998 was the Nation’s tenth highest.

The chart below also presents this information, but eliminates sentences of less than two years and the unknown category to make interpretation easier. This shows even more clearly the dramatic rise in those serving sentences of five years to less than ten years (principally Class D felons). At least a portion of this rise has been due to the creation of a new offense, Burglary-3rd degree (a Class D felony), in 1992. With the creation of this offense there has been a large decrease in the number of Burglary-2nd convictions, reducing the rise in Class C felony convictions and contributing to the rise in Class D convictions.

Source: Department of Corrections E-1 Reports.

To further provide an idea of the nature changes in the prison population, Table IX is presented below, showing changes in the number of broad offender types in prison admissions. The largest changes over the period shown on the table have been seen in OWI and traffic offenses (+272%), escape (233%), drug offenses (178%), assault (133%), and weapons offenses (+104%). Only three of these increases, however, have involved significant numbers of offenders: OWI/traffic, drug offenses, and assault. Of these three, only one (OWI) showed a double-digit increase in FY99.

Three offenses showed decreased admissions during the eight-year period: murder/manslaughter (perhaps stemming from fewer homicides), arson, and pimping/prostitution. Each of these offenses involves a small number of admissions each year, and such small numbers are susceptible to large yearly fluctuation. Last year, for example, pimping/prostitution was included among the offenses having the largest percentage increase over the period.

Fully ten of the sixteen offenses included here showed decreases in FY99 from FY98. The most noteworthy of these were found for burglary (a drop from 438 to 366 admissions), forgery/fraud (drop from 281 to 212), and assault (drop from 325 to 298). Each of these offenses accounts for many admissions each year, and continued drops would have hopeful implications for controlling growth in Iowa’s prison system.

 

TABLE IX. NEW PRISON ADMISSIONS BY OFFENSE TYPE

(New Court Commitments and Probation Revocations)

FY91-99

Primary Offense

FY91

FY92

FY93

FY94

FY95

FY96

FY97

FY98

FY99

% Chng 91-99

% Chng 98-99

Drug Offenses

235

319

369

340

338

466

523

653

654

178.3%

0.2%

Drunken Driving/Traffic

123

172

208

280

258

231

280

392

457

271.5%

16.6%

Theft

322

353

362

318

322

402

406

448

414

28.6%

-7.6%

Burglary

335

364

342

349

352

374

400

438

366

9.3%

-16.4%

Assault

128

122

169

189

214

246

273

325

298

132.8%

-8.3%

Sexual Abuse

212

224

205

251

232

212

206

233

225

6.1%

-3.4%

Forgery/Fraud

129

134

126

158

216

223

226

281

212

64.3%

-24.6%

Robbery

74

79

85

111

114

111

84

90

90

21.6%

0.0%

All Other Offenses

46

42

62

41

45

46

35

64

69

50.0%

7.8%

Weapons

28

37

43

55

69

91

79

74

63

125.0%

-14.9%

Murder/Manslaughter

66

77

45

48

56

57

72

56

47

-28.8%

-16.1%

Criminal Mischief

24

43

35

30

32

34

34

35

32

33.3%

-8.6%

Flight/Escape

9

17

15

11

19

24

21

26

30

233.3%

15.4%

Arson

28

18

23

16

32

18

20

16

18

-35.7%

12.5%

Kidnapping

12

9

8

18

17

10

15

17

13

8.3%

-23.5%

Pimping/Prostitution

17

34

16

21

29

29

23

32

11

-35.3%

-65.6%

Total New Admissions

1,788

2,044

2,113

2,236

2,345

2,574

2,697

3,180

2,999

67.7%

-5.7%

Source: Division of Criminal and Juvenile Justice Planning. Data taken from ACIS.

Another source of change in the population is shown in Table X, which presents data on the yearend population, persons serving life sentences, and persons serving mandatory minimum sentences. This table is somewhat surprising in regards to "lifers," as, while there have been steady increases in persons serving life sentences, over the last ten years their percentage change has been less than that of the population as a whole (perhaps due to a general drop in homicide). Due in part to legislative action, the number of those serving mandatory minimum terms, however, has risen faster than the population as a whole, with most of the increase occurring since fiscal year 1993.

TABLE X. JUNE 30 POPULATION, LIFERS, MANDATORY MINIMUMS

Year

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

%Chng

Yearend Population

3,842

4,077

4,485

4,695

5,090

5,692

6,176

6,636

7,431

7,231

88.2%

Lifers at Yearend

297

315

355

363

385

403

428

458

480

491

65.3%

Mandatory Minimums

636

659

698

746

770

902

986

1,142

1,416

1,632

156.6%

Net Parolable

2,909

3,103

3,432

3,586

3,935

4,387

4,762

5,036

5,535

5,108

75.6%

Source: Department of Corrections E-1 Reports

Table XI shows a broader picture of changes in the prison population, examining the inmate population by the type of commission offense. It shows that, between FY1990 and FY1999, the increase in inmates committed for non-persons offenses clearly outstripped that for persons offenses. Beginning in FY93, the population also includes a breakdown of those committed for "chemical offenses," which include drug and alcohol offenses. Since that time the percentage increase in chemical offenses is much greater than for either persons or non-persons offenses, and the raw increase in chemical offenses almost equals that for non-persons offenses. Note that the drop in population in FY99 was due entirely to a reduction in inmates committed for non-persons offenses.

Table XI. Prison Population Offense Types

Offense Type

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994*

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

% Chng

93-99

Person

2,495

2,066

2,352

2,166

2,415

2,682

2,883

3,077

3,387

3,403

36.4%

57.1%

Non-person

1,852

2,512

2,779

2,298

2,435

2,763

2,926

3,067

3,401

3,022

63.2%

31.5%

Chemical

--

--

--

898

1,005

1,094

1,299

1,476

1,808

1,933

--

115.3%

*Estimated. Actual total will be within 5.

Source: Department of Corrections E-1 Reports. Totals may not equal total number of inmates in system due to offenders committed for multiple offenses of different type.

Comparing Iowa’s prison population to the state prison populations nationally, in 1999 Iowa’s population of 7,231 consisted of 47% persons offenders, 42% non-persons offenders, and 27% drug offenders. Sentenced prisoners nationally consisted of 47% violent offenders, 22 percent property offenders, 21% drug offenders, and ten percent public order offenders. While the Iowa percentages shown above are not directly comparable to the national totals because of the lack of data on public order offenders, the Division of Criminal and Juvenile Justice Planning has prepared comparable figures for its 1999 Inmate Profile. That report shows Iowa with 43 percent violent offenders, 29 percent property offenders, 19 percent drug offenders, and six percent public order offenders. This suggests that property offenders are slightly over-represented in the Iowa prison system compared to prison systems in other states.

National figures also differ from Iowa’s in the types of offenses resulting in population increases. Nationally, fully 50% of the increase in prison population between 1990 and 1997 consisted of violent offenders, with drug offenders accounting for another 19 percent, property offenders 16 percent, and public-order offenders 15 percent. In Iowa, however, most of the increase has been due to chemical (drug and alcohol) offenders, whose numbers have more than doubled since 1993.

Another look at the prison population is presented in the graph below, which shows changes in the types of prison admissions since state fiscal year 1983. A nearly steady increase in overall admissions has been seen since FY83, with the only exceptions occurring in 1991 and 1999. The largest total increase occurred during FY98, when admissions increased by 485.

Both probation revocations and direct court commitments reached their highest levels in FY98. While direct commitments have generally risen gradually over the period, the increase in probation revocations and suspensions has occurred primarily since 1993, more than doubling between 1993 and 1998 before a decrease in FY99. This means that a significant portion of the prison population has already had opportunities to avoid incarceration by serving periods of probation in the community, but that they have failed. This is one of the factors leading to increased caution on the part of the Board in granting parole. Note, also, that the overall decrease in commitments in FY99 was due entirely to a reduction in probation revocations. While there was somewhat of a leveling off of direct court commitments and parole returns during FY99, new policies in community-based corrections appear to have been responsible for the entire reduction in commitments in FY99.

This reduction in probation revocations has significance also because increases in probation revocations have recently been one of the driving forces behind Iowa’s increasing prison population. Between FY91 and FY98, probation revocations had increased from 578 to 1,694 (or 193%). During the same period direct court commitments increased from 2,891 to 4,735 (or 64%). In FY92 parole revocation and suspensions and probation revocations were nearly equal. Since then, however, probation revocations and suspensions have reached a level almost four times that of parole revocations and suspensions. Even with the drop in probation revocations in FY99, they outnumbered parole revocations by 3:1.

Source: Department of Corrections E-1 Reports.

A final look at the prison population is illustrated in the graph below, which shows end-of-year prison population, total admissions, total releases, and parole releases. More than previous tables and charts, this one shows increasing caution on the part of the Board in protecting the public. As shown previously in the Workload section, until FY99 paroles had accounted for a smaller portion of overall releases in recent years, as the Board has allowed more inmates to expire sentences rather than granting them parole. This is consistent with public safety concerns, as Iowa research has previously shown that some high-risk inmates are best incapacitated for as long a period as possible to ensure public safety. The net result of this approach is that, until FY99, the number of paroles granted has varied little since 1986, when there were 1,216 paroles out of a total prison population of 2,722. That year, slightly more than half the releases from prison were via parole. Since that time, with the advent of additional release opportunities such as work release, paroles as a percentage of all releases have dropped. See page 14 for further illustration of this trend. Note that figures for this chart come from ACIS; due to delays in release, rescissions, and other factors, the number of paroles in this chart may not necessarily agree with figures presented elsewhere in this report.

Source: Department of Corrections E-1 Reports.

 

 

VII. SIXTH JUDICIAL DISTRICT PROBATION PROJECT

During the 1997 legislative session, Governor Branstad recommended that the legislature authorize the Parole Board’s Administrative Parole Judges to conduct probation revocation hearings in the Sixth Judicial District on an experimental basis. The reasons for this recommendation were two-fold:

  • To reduce the workload of criminal court judges.
  • To take advantage of the parole Judges’ correctional sanctioning expertise.

The General Assembly accepted this recommendation and passed Senate File 503, which became effective July 1, 1997. The Parole Board began implementing the statute on that date and held numerous planning sessions with the Sixth District judges, county attorneys, clerks of court, sheriffs, and Department of Corrections. Due to an early interpretation of the statute, the Board not only was deemed in charge of hearings, but also arrest warrants, bonds, initial appearances, and appointment of counsel. The Board proceeded under this interpretation of the law until December 31, 1997, when Sixth District Court Judge David M. Remley ruled the project invalid. The Parole Board appealed this decision to the Iowa Supreme Court but dismissed its appeal when the legislature modified the statute to correct the alleged deficiencies of the project by passing Senate File 2377, which became effective on May 22, 1998.

A further challenge to the Sixth District project occurred in 1999, resulting in a ruling handed down by District Court Judge L. Vern Robinson on September 2. Petitioners had both received suspended sentences and had been placed on probation, only to have the probation later revoked by an administrative law judge. In this case, as in earlier cases, the petitioners claimed a lack of due process and equal protection, and also challenged the use of administrative law judges in revocations on the basis of separation of powers. The Court determined that the revocation procedure used in the Sixth Judicial district as set out in section 907.8A was not unconstitutional.

As to the due process contentions of the appellants, the Court noted that

[A probationer’s due process rights] are guarded and assured in section 907.8A. A probationer is given notice of the alleged violations and a hearing is scheduled to prove the truth of the allegations. A probationer is entitled to appointed counsel and is given an opportunity to defend the application. A record is made and an appeal is available through the administrative process as well as to the district and ultimately the Supreme Court. Any claim of a failure to afford a probationer due process in the 6th Judicial District is without merit.

On the issue of equal protection, the Court noted that, while there were "minor distinctions" between the rights or probationers in the 6th District and those in other districts, they "do not rise to constitutional infirmity."

The tribunal which hears probation revocation case[s] in the 6th Judicial District has the same options available to it that a district judge has in the other districts. Other than the method of appeal (17A appeal versus post conviction relief), there is virtually no distinction. Thus, factually, there is no violation of equal protection.

The Court added that using the 6th Judicial District to test an administrative system is a "reasonable legislative prerogative," and may "result in a court system which is more efficient and is able to resolve more disputes."

The potential information to come from the 6th District experiment furthers a legitimate State interest. There is no unequal protection of law.

Petitioners also claimed that section 907.8A breached the separation of powers by entrusting a judicial function to a representative of the Executive Branch. The Court also rejected this contention, indicating that

…the judicial branch has carried out its obligation when it sentenced the defendants to an indeterminate term of years, placed them in the custody of the Director of Corrections, and then suspended the sentence conditioned on the probationer’s compliance with all rules and requirements imposed by the court and the probation office. Once the court has sentenced the defendants, they are "turned over" to a representative of the Executive Branch of government (probation officer), who monitors their conduct and, if the probationers fail in following condition[s] of the probation, they (probationers) are subject to revocation and sanctions. Determining whether a probationer has violated his or her conditions of probation is not necessarily a judicial responsibility.

Probation revocation hearings held by the Administrative Law Judge rose markedly during FY99, as shown below:

 

 

Table XII. Sixth District Probation Revocation Project

Dispositions, FY1999, by Month

Month

Dispositions

Jul-98

0

Aug-98

2

Sep-98

1

Oct-98

5

Nov-98

5

Dec-98

6

Jan-99

6

Feb-99

7

Mar-99

10

Apr-99

11

May-99

14

Jun-99

7

Total

74

The distribution of these dispositions is shown in the chart below.

The FY99 figures are notable in several respects. First, there was a large increase in the number of cases adjudicated (from 24 in FY98 to 74 in FY99). There was also a shift away from revocations to jail (7 in FY98, compared to 1 in FY99 despite added numbers). There was similarity in revocations as a percentage of the total (54% in FY98 vs. 56% in FY99). Four individuals were referred to Violator Programs operated by the Department of Corrections (vs. 1 in FY98). Twenty-nine cases (39%) involved placement in residential facilities (the Hinzman Center, Hope House, or the Nelson Center).

In making corrections to the original statute enabling establishment of this project, the General Assembly also required an evaluation, which is to be submitted during the 2001 legislative session by the Division of Criminal and Juvenile Justice Planning. The Board continues to support this project and anticipates a favorable evaluation outcome.

 

 

VIII. TIME SERVED PRIOR TO PAROLE

A number of factors affect the amount of time individuals spend incarcerated prior to release on parole. The most obvious of these is the inmate’s maximum term of incarceration, which in Iowa is set by statute. There appears to be some public misunderstanding of prison terms in Iowa, in part because of the indeterminate nature of the State’s sentencing structure. Three groups set terms of incarceration in Iowa:

  • the Legislature, which establishes maximum terms of incarceration and may choose to require either mandatory incarceration or a mandatory minimum term of incarceration;
  • judges, who in sentencing determine who is incarcerated and who is not (and after imprisonment may choose to release an offender on "shock probation" after a period of up to three months); and
  • the Board of Parole, which determines when offenders may be released on work release and/or parole.

Indeterminate sentencing is also misunderstood because when a judge sentences an offender to a specific term -- say, ten years of incarceration -- the sentence, absent a mandatory minimum, is actually zero-to-ten years, and the offender may be legally paroled at any time after reception by the prison system. Additionally, under Iowa’s "good time" statute, most offenders’ sentences are also reduced by up to half by good behavior in the prison system, so most ten-year sentences will expire in about five years.

There have been a number of changes in Iowa statutes in recent years whose effect has been to raise the prison population. Most of these either increase the maximum penalty for an offense or delay the time at which the Board of Parole may consider inmates for release. These include:

  • a requirement that inmates sentenced for Murder-2nd, Attempted Murder, Sex Abuse-2nd, Sex Abuse-3rd, Kidnapping-2nd, Robbery-1st, and Robbery-2nd serve 85 percent of their maximum terms of incarceration prior to release;
  • lengthening the maximum term of incarceration for some drug, weapons, sex, and OWI offenses.

Another factor influencing the size of the prison population has been increasing caution on the part of the Board in releasing inmates who may pose a threat to society. The Board’s use of risk assessment in release deliberations has had two distinct effects: to hasten release of good risks who do not need to be incarcerated for reasons of public safety; and to delay release of bad risks who present a threat to society. Appendix V shows mean time to parole by offense class by risk. Delaying release of high-risk inmates is one of the factors responsible for low recidivism among Iowa parolees. See Chapter X.

The Board’s caution is also illustrated in Appendix VI, which shows percentages of offenders released in FY99 via either parole or expiration. This appendix shows clearly that the Board is increasingly willing to allow sex offenders, in particular, to expire their sentences rather than being released on parole.

Table XIII, below, presents an overview of paroling activity during FY99, presenting the amount of time served prior to parole for all offenses accounting for ten or more paroles in FY99. Readers interested in offenses not on the table are urged to consult Table 11, which presents all offenses accounting for paroles in FY99.

Table XIII. Time Served Prior to Parole

FY99 Overview

Lead Offense

Number Paroled

Avg. Months Served

Crimes Against Persons

Assault in Felony - No injury

15

25.1

Assault W/Intent Comm. Serious Injury

11

9.6

Assault with Weapon

11

13.5

Domestic Abuse – Third or Subsequent

11

24.5

Domestic Abuse Assault – Second

15

10.3

Domestic Abuse Assault, Subsequent Simple

13

13.1

Going Armed With Intent

21

23.5

Habitual Against Persons

13

90.7

Robbery, First Degree

33

135.2

Robbery, Second Degree

74

64.3

Sexual Abuse, Third Degree

14

45.2

Terrorism - C Felony

13

37.2

Willful injury

18

60.7

Property Crimes

Arson, Second Degree

16

43.2

Burglary, Second Degree

111

58.5

Burglary, Third Degree

267

22.8

Burglary, Attempted Third Degree

19

11.5

Criminal Mischief, Second Degree

12

20.9

Forgery - D Felony

216

21.3

Operating Motor Vehicle w/o Consent

22

11.7

Theft, First Degree

106

36.3

Theft, Second Degree

195

22.2

Theft, Third Degree

53

11.8

Drug Offenses

Controlled Substances-Second or Subsequent

11

76.1

Failure to Obtain Controlled Subs. Tax Stamp

26

19.7

Manufacture/Delivery of a Counterfeit Drug (C)

40

60.2

Manufacture/Delivery of Controlled Substance (C)

379

28.8

Manufacture/Delivery of Marijuana, <50 Kilos

100

16.9

OWI-Second Offense

137

6.5

OWI-Third Offense

666

10.0

Other Offenses

Driving While Barred

54

9.2

Escape or Absence of Felon

10

26.5

Failure to Appear for Felony

15

20.3

Habitual Not Persons

37

72.3

Prostitution

25

12.5

Receiving, Transporting Firearms by Felon

63

21.0

ALL PAROLES

3,114

25.8

Table XIV, on the pages following, presents a complete itemization of paroles for FY1999, listing the felony class, the specific offense, whether or not consecutive sentences were involved, the number of persons paroled during the year, and the maximum, minimum, and mean lengths of stay. In a change from reports prior to last year’s, in an effort to avoid redundancy the table does not list a total separately when all of the paroles for a certain offense either did or did not involve consecutive sentences. For example, the one parole for robbery with aggravation involved a consecutive sentence, so the column for consecutive sentences notes "Y/Total" to note that the numbers for the total and for the consecutive sentence category were the same. Similarly, all the controlled substance offenses in the "other" category did not involve consecutive sentences, so they are all listed as "N/Total."

Note: There is little difference in average time served for Class C felonies against persons or not against persons. Therefore only the total for Class C felonies is presented here. The upward trend in Class B felonies not against persons through FY98 is undoubtedly due to their recent creation; particularly during FY94-96, only the very best candidates in the category were paroled, resulting in an unusually short length-of-stay.

 

Table XIV. FY 1999 Months Served Prior to Parole

Offense

Consec.

Months Served

Class

Primary Offense

Sents?

Number

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

50 Yr Fel

Kidnapping – Second Degree

N/Total

1

236.1

236.1

236.1

50 Yr Fel

Murder - Second Degree

N

1

185.0

185.0

185.0

50 Yr Fel

Murder - Second Degree

Y

1

192.2

192.2

192.2

50 Yr Fel

Murder - Second Degree

Total

2

185.0

192.2

188.6

50 Yr Fel

Robbery with Aggravation

Y/Total

2

274.1

285.2

279.7

50 Yr Fel

50 Year Felony Total

5

185

285.2

234.2

Other

Cont. Subs., 2nd/Subsequent

N

10

29.5

105.0

68.2

Other

Cont. Subs., 2nd/Subsequent

Y

1

155.5

155.5

155.5

Other

Cont. Subs., 2nd/Subsequent

Total

11

29.5

155.5

76.1

Other

Cont. Subs. Violation, Firearm

N

7

4.8

62.3

30.9

Other

Cont. Subs. Violation, Firearm

Y

1

56.1

56.1

56.1

Other

Cont. Subs. Violation, Firearm

Total

8

4.8

62.3

34.1

Other

Distrib. Cont. Subs by School/Park

N

8

13.1

89.1

52.5

Other

Distrib. Cont. Subs by School/Park

Y

1

59.5

59.5

59.5

Other

Distrib. Cont. Subs by School/Park

Total

9

13.1

89.1

53.2

Other

Other Total

28

4.8

155.5

56.8

B

Arson - First Degree

N/Total

1

106.5

106.5

106.5

B

Attempt to Commit Murder

N

1

128.8

128.8

128.8

B

Attempt to Commit Murder

Y

3

40.1

175.6

85.7

B

Attempt to Commit Murder

Total

4

40.1

175.6

96.5

B

Burglary - First Degree

N

1

19.0

19.0

19.0

B

Burglary - First Degree

Y

3

91.0

139.9

108.8

B

Burglary - First Degree

Total

4

19.0

139.9

86.4

B

Kidnapping - Second Degree

Y/Total

1

100.8

100.8

100.8

B

Manufact/Deliv Counterfeit CS

N/Total

6

63.5

79.9

69.0

B

Prohibited Acts - Manuf. Or Del.

N

7

28.8

66.1

46.5

B

Prohibited Acts - Manuf. Or Del.

Y

2

39.5

62.7

51.1

B

Prohibited Acts - Manuf. Or Del.

Total

9

28.8

66.1

47.5

B

Robbery - First Degree

N

27

62.1

237.1

128.2

B

Robbery - First Degree

Y

6

114.7

238.7

166.6

B

Robbery - First Degree

Total

33

62.1

238.7

135.2

B

Sexual Abuse - Second Degree

N/Total

2

121.2

140.2

130.7

B

Class B Felony Total

60

19.0

238.7

108.4

 

Habitual

Habitual Offender - Person

N

11

42.9

109.9

82.7

Habitual

Habitual Offender - Person

Y

2

119.8

149.3

134.6

Habitual

Habitual Offender - Person

Total

13

42.9

149.3

90.7

Habitual

Habitual Offender - Property

N

28

29.4

151.0

56.1

Habitual

Habitual Offender - Property

Y

9

31.3

207.5

122.9

Habitual

Habitual Offender - Property

Total

37

29.4

207.5

72.3

Habitual

Habitual Total

50

29.4

207.5

77.1

C

Aiding & Abetting

Y/Total

1

76.6

76.6

76.6

C

Arson - Second Degree

N/Total

16

21.7

75.8

43.2

C

Assault While Particip. in Felony

Y/Total

3

39.6

41.3

40.2

C

Burglary - Second Degree

N

77

11.8

171.6

46.1

C

Burglary - Second Degree

Y

34

30.0

176.3

86.6

C

Burglary - Second Degree

Total

111

11.8

176.3

58.5

C

Child Endangerment Serious Injury

N

7

27.0

51.7

40.4

C

Child Endangerment Serious Injury

Y

1

76.2

76.2

76.2

C

Child Endangerment Serious Injury

Total

8

27.0

76.2

44.9

C

Conspiracy/Forcible Felony

N

5

15.6

46.8

27.2

C

Conspiracy/Forcible Felony

Y

2

63.6

69.8

66.7

C

Conspiracy/ Forcible Felony

Total

7

15.6

69.8

38.5

C

Criminal Mischief - First Degree

N

2

52.8

90.7

71.8

C

Criminal Mischief - First Degree

Y

1

58.4

58.4

58.4

C

Criminal Mischief - First Degree

Total

3

52.8

90.7

67.3

C

Distrib. Non-Narcotics to Minors

N/Total

1

23.7

23.7

23.7

C

Fraud. Practices - First Degree

N/Total

1

33.5

33.5

33.5

C

Homicide by Vehicle/OWI

N/Total

7

22.0

58.3

37.4

C

Kidnapping - Third Degree

N

1

51.7

51.7

51.7

C

Kidnapping - Third Degree

Y

1

109.1

109.1

109.1

C

Kidnapping - Third Degree

Total

2

51.7

109.1

80.4

C

Manufact./Delivery Counterfeit CS

N

34

15.6

93.8

58.8

C

Manufact./Delivery Counterfeit CS

Y

6

54.0

82.7

68.2

C

Manufact./Delivery Counterfeit CS

Total

40

15.6

93.8

60.2

C

Manufacture/Delivery Cont. Subs.

N

346

10.4

73.9

28.0

C

Manufacture/Delivery Cont. Subs.

Y

33

15.9

65.3

37.0

C

Manufacture/Delivery Cont. Subs.

Total

379

10.4

73.9

28.8

C

Manufacture/Delivery Narcotics

N/Total

2

75.4

84.2

79.8

C

Money Laundering

N/Total

1

23.3

23.3

23.3

C

Pandering Involving a Minor

Y/Total

2

91.9

93.5

92.7

C

Possession Burglar's Tools

Y/Total

1

96.1

96.1

96.1

C

Explosives/Incendiary Material

N

3

23.5

62.9

43.7

C

Explosives/Incendiary Material

Y

1

87.1

87.1

87.1

C

Explosives/Incendiary Material

Total

4

23.5

87.1

54.5

C

Possession of Stolen Property

N/Total

1

43.6

43.6

43.6

C

Reckless Use of Firearm

N/Total

1

40.9

40.9

40.9

C

Robbery - Second

N

48

28.2

161.3

54.1

C

Robbery - Second

Y

26

38.4

173.5

83.1

C

Robbery - Second

Total

74

28.2

173.5

64.3

C

Sexual Abuse - Third Degree

N

13

30.4

57.0

44.7

C

Sexual Abuse - Third Degree

Y

1

51.3

51.3

51.3

C

Sexual Abuse - Third Degree

Total

14

30.4

57.0

45.2

C

Terrorism

N

12

19.7

56.5

36.8

C

Terrorism

Y

1

41.3

41.3

41.3

C

Terrorism

Total

13

19.7

56.5

37.2

C

Theft - First Degree

N

93

10.8

79.0

33.4

C

Theft - First Degree

Y

13

12.0

93.0

57.6

C

Theft - First Degree

Total

106

10.8

93.0

36.3

C

Use of Firearm in Drug Offense

Y/Total

1

72.7

72.7

72.7

C

Voluntary Manslaughter

N

2

26.6

56.3

41.5

C

Voluntary Manslaughter

Y

1

69.8

69.8

69.8

C

Voluntary Manslaughter

Total

3

26.6

69.8

50.9

C

Willful Injury

N

9

42.0

72.7

52.2

C

Willful Injury

Y

9

43.0

128.0

69.2

C

Willful Injury

Total

18

42.0

128.0

60.7

C

Class C Felony Total

820

10.4

176.3

41.2

D

Assault in Felony/no injury

N

12

11.2

34.8

20.2

D

Assault in Felony/no injury

Y

3

27.2

70.6

44.7

D

Assault in Felony/no injury

Total

15

11.2

70.6

25.1

D

Assault w/int. Sex Abuse-Injury

N/Total

1

22.5

22.5

22.5

D

Assault P.O. With Weapon

N/Total

2

20.0

21.7

20.9

D

Assault P.O. With Intent

Y/Total

1

26.3

26.3

26.3

D

Att. Burglary - Second Degree

N

4

23.9

28.8

25.9

D

Att. Burglary - Second Degree

Y

1

39.3

39.3

39.3

D

Att. Burglary - Second Degree

Total

5

23.9

39.3

28.6

D

Burglary - Third Degree

N

228

7.5

47.0

20.9

D

Burglary - Third Degree

Y

39

13.6

74.9

33.6

D

Burglary - Third Degree

Total

267

7.5

74.9

22.8

D

Conspiracy Felony Non-person

N/Total

8

10.7

39.4

18.1

D

Criminal Gang Participation

N/Total

2

11.8

31.0

21.4

D

Criminal Misch. - Second Degree

N/Total

12

8.0

35.2

20.9

D

Domestic Abuse - 3rd/Subseq.

N

10

16.7

32.1

24.0

D

Domestic Abuse - 3rd/Subseq.

Y

1

28.7

28.7

28.7

D

Domestic Abuse - 3rd/Subseq.

Total

11

16.7

32.1

24.5

D

Escape or Absence of Felon

N

7

8.4

34.2

23.8

D

Escape or Absence of Felon

Y

3

25.3

45.9

33.0

D

Escape or Absence of Felon

Total

10

8.4

45.9

26.5

D

Evading Taxes

N/Total

2

6.9

8.1

7.5

D

Extortion

N

7

12.7

29.8

22.4

D

Extortion

Y

2

29.0

43.1

36.1

D

Extortion

Total

9

12.7

43.1

25.5

D

Fail to Appear – Felony

N

13

8.6

28.4

16.6

D

Fail to Appear – Felony

Y

2

29.2

60.4

44.8

D

Fail to Appear – Felony

Total

15

8.6

60.4

20.3

D

Failure Obtain CS Tax Stamp

N

24

6.9

39.0

19.2

D

Failure Obtain CS Tax Stamp

Y

2

18.1

34.3

26.2

D

Failure Obtain CS Tax Stamp

Total

26

6.9

39.0

19.7

D

Forgery

N

180

6.5

48.5

19.3

D

Forgery

Y

36

10.7

61.1

31.1

D

Forgery

Total

216

6.5

61.1

21.3

D

Fraud. Practices – Second Degree

N/Total

7

8.3

25.3

15.4

D

Fraudulent Submissions

N/Total

1

29.3

29.3

29.3

D

Furnish Cont. Subs to Inmates

N

2

12.7

28.3

20.5

D

Furnish Cont. Subs to Inmates

Y

1

70.3

70.3

70.3

D

Furnish Cont. Subs to Inmates

Total

3

12.7

70.3

37.1

D

Furnish Intoxicant to Inmates

N/Total

1

10.2

10.2

10.2

D

Going Armed with Intent

N

15

7.6

28.3

19.5

D

Going Armed with Intent

Y

6

12.6

64.0

33.5

D

Going Armed with Intent

Total

21

7.6

64.0

23.5

D

Interfere w/official acts – injury

N/Total

1

17.8

17.8

17.8

D

Interfere w/Correctional Worker

Y/Total

1

30.0

30.0

30.0

D

Invol. Mansl. by Comm./offense

N/Total

3

13.2

28.0

20.2

D

Lascivious Acts with Child

N

3

15.7

27.7

20.3

D

Lascivious Acts with Child

Y

3

34.3

102.2

79.0

D

Lascivious Acts with Child

Total

6

15.7

102.2

49.6

D

Manufacture/Delivery Marijuana

N

3

13.8

16.0

15.1

D

Manufacture/Delivery Marijuana

Y

1

73.7

73.7

73.7

D

Manufacture/Delivery Marijuana

Total

4

13.8

73.7

29.8

D

Manufact./Deliv Marij.<50 Kilos

N

90

5.9

34.6

16.0

D

Manufact./Deliv Marij.<50 Kilos

Y

10

11.7

58.9

24.2

D

Manufact./Deliv Marij.<50 Kilos

Total

100

5.9

58.9

16.9

D

Nonsupport

N/Total

1

12.1

12.1

12.1

D

OWI – Third Offense

N

626

2.1

51.1

8.8

D

OWI – Third Offense

Y

40

4.1

92.3

28.0

D

OWI – Third Offense

Total

666

2.1

92.3

10.0

D

Pandering

N/Total

1

21.4

21.4

21.4

D

Possession Stolen Property

N/Total

1

11.6

11.6

11.6

D

Prohibited Acts - Substances

N

1

10.5

10.5

10.5

D

Prohibited Acts - Substances

Y

1

8.3

8.3

8.3

D

Prohibited Acts - Substances

Total

2

8.3

10.5

9.4

D

Prohibited Sales of Tickets

N/Total

4

11.1

26.3

17.1

D

Rec., Trans., Firearms Felon

N

53

7.4

34.5

18.7

D

Rec., Trans., Firearms Felon

Y

10

14.4

56.8

32.9

D

Rec., Trans., Firearms Felon

Total

63

7.4

56.8

21.0

D

Reckless Use of a Firearm

N/Total

1

14.5

14.5

14.5

D

Solicit to Comm. Fel. Non-person

N/Total

1

12.4

12.4

12.4

D

Stalking

N

2

18.1

23.6

20.9

D

Stalking

Y

1

27.7

27.7

27.7

D

Stalking

Total

3

18.1

27.7

23.1

D

Terrorism

N/Total

8

11.6

30.6

19.8

D

Theft - Second Degree

N

161

6.3

72.1

20.2

D

Theft - Second Degree

Y

34

11.3

62.2

32.0

D

Theft - Second Degree

Total

195

6.3

72.1

22.2

D

Threats

N/Total

3

9.0

26.2

16.3

D

Unauth Poss. Offensive Weapon

N/Total

6

8.3

28.9

20.6

D

Unauthorized Use Credit Cards

N

5

7.7

15.9

10.8

D

Unauthorized Use Credit Cards

Y

2

25.8

30.2

28.0

D

Unauthorized Use Credit Cards

Total

7

7.7

30.2

15.7

D

Violating a Custodial Order

N/Total

2

17.7

46.6

32.2

D

Class D Felony Total

1,714

2.1

102.2

17.1

Agg Misd

Access. After the Fact – Felony

N

3

10.5

11.2

11.0

Agg Misd

Access. After the Fact – Felony

Y

1

15.8

15.8

15.8

Agg Misd

Access. After the Fact – Felony

Total

4

10.5

15.8

12.2

Agg Misd

Assault with Weapon

N

10

4.6

33.0

12.4

Agg Misd

Assault with Weapon

Y

1

24.6

24.6

24.6

Agg Misd

Assault with Weapon

Total

11

4.6

33.0

13.5

Agg Misd

Asslt w/int. Sex Abuse no injury

Y/Total

1

16.3

16.3

16.3

Agg Misd

Asslt w/int. Comm. Serious Injury

N

9

4.4

11.3

8.6

Agg Misd

Asslt w/int. Comm. Serious Injury

Y

2

8.5

20.2

14.4

Agg Misd

Asslt w/int. Comm. Serious Injury

Total

11

4.4

20.2

9.6

Agg Misd

Assault Peace Officer w/intent

N

1

13.3

13.3

13.3

Agg Misd

Assault Peace Officer w/intent

Y

2

8.1

36.9

22.5

Agg Misd

Assault Peace Officer w/intent

Total

3

8.1

36.9

19.4

Agg Misd

Attempted Burglary - Third Degree

N

14

5.2

12.0

9.0

Agg Misd

Attempted Burglary - Third Degree

Y

5

7.2

35.5

18.6

Agg Misd

Attempted Burglary - Third Degree

Total

19

5.2

35.5

11.5

Agg Misd

Bootlegging - Third & Subsequent

N/Total

3

5.9

10.4

8.6

Agg Misd

Carrying Weapons

N/Total

8

3.8

12.5

8.2

Agg Misd

Child Endangerment - No injury

N/Total

5

9.3

11.5

10.8

Agg Misd

Consp. Commit Misd – Person

N/Total

1

5.2

5.2

5.2

Agg Misd

Criminal Mischief - Third Degree

N/Total

5

5.5

10.8

9.1

Agg Misd

Domestic Abuse Assault – Second

N

12

4.4

20.9

9.6

Agg Misd

Domestic Abuse Assault – Second

Y

3

9.3

18.2

13.5

Agg Misd

Domestic Abuse Assault – Second

Total

15

4.4

20.9

10.3

Agg Misd

Domestic Abuse Assault Subseq.

N

10

7.1

14.8

10.5

Agg Misd

Domestic Abuse Assault Subseq.

Y

3

6.6

40.1

21.8

Agg Misd

Domestic Abuse Assault Subseq.

Total

13

6.6

40.1

13.1

Agg Misd

Dom. Abuse Asslt, intent/weapon

N

3

6.7

12.6

10.0

Agg Misd

Dom. Abuse Asslt, intent/weapon

Y

1

22.2

22.2

22.2

Agg Misd

Dom. Abuse Asslt, intent/weapon

Total

4

6.7

22.2

13.1

Agg Misd

Driving while Barred

N

43

3.7

15.2

8.5

Agg Misd

Driving while Barred

Y

11

7.4

20.3

11.9

Agg Misd

Driving while Barred

Total

54

3.7

20.3

9.2

Agg Misd

Forgery

N

3

6.3

8.2

7.3

Agg Misd

Forgery

Y

1

14.9

14.9

14.9

Agg Misd

Forgery

Total

4

6.3

14.9

9.2

Agg Misd

Fraud. Practices – Third Degree

N/Total

3

5.6

10.9

7.6

Agg Misd

Harassment

N/Total

2

8.2

11.3

9.8

Agg Misd

Impersonating a Public Official

N/Total

1

12.7

12.7

12.7

Agg Misd

Interference w/Official acts

Y/Total

1

14.0

14.0

14.0

Agg Misd

Invol. Manslaughter – Unintent.

Y/Total

1

10.9

10.9

10.9

Agg Misd

Oper. MV w/o Owner's Consent

N

17

4.2

20.0

10.3

Agg Misd

Oper. MV w/o Owner's Consent

Y

5

13.5

22.1

16.7

Agg Misd

Oper. MV w/o Owner's Consent

Total

22

4.2

22.1

11.7

Agg Misd

OWI - Second Offense

N

128

2.4

50.5

6.3

Agg Misd

OWI - Second Offense

Y

9

3.6

22.0

9.5

Agg Misd

OWI - Second Offense

Total

137

2.4

50.5

6.5

Agg Misd

Poss. C.S. without Prescription

N/Total

1

6.9

6.9

6.9

Agg Misd

Prohibited Acts – Distribution

N/Total

2

9.0

10.7

9.9

Agg Misd

Prohibited Acts – Schedule IV/V

N/Total

1

10.6

10.6

10.6

Agg Misd

Prostitution

N

20

3.5

12.8

9.7

Agg Misd

Prostitution

Y

5

18.6

33.9

23.6

Agg Misd

Prostitution

Total

25

3.5

33.9

12.5

Agg Misd

Reckless Use of a Firearm

N/Total

1

10.5

10.5

10.5

Agg Misd

Serious Injury by Vehicle

Y/Total

1

10.1

10.1

10.1

Agg Misd

Tampering with Records

N/Total

1

11.4

11.4

11.4

Agg Misd

Theft - Third Degree

N

42

2.9

18.4

8.8

Agg Misd

Theft - Third Degree

Y

11

6.8

42.1

23.7

Agg Misd

Theft - Third Degree

Total

53

2.9

42.1

11.8

Agg Misd

Unauthorized Use Credit Card

N/Total

5

4.2

11.0

7.1

Agg Misd

Aggrav. Misdemeanor Total

418

2.4

50.5

9.5

Ser Misd

Assaulting a Peace Officer

Y/Total

1

9.4

9.4

9.4

Ser Misd

Dom. Abuse Asslt No Intent - Inj.

Y/Total

1

7.8

7.8

7.8

Ser Misd

Dom. Abuse Assault - Bodily Inj.

Y/Total

1

7.3

7.3

7.3

Ser Misd

Driving while Revoked

Y/Total

1

4.9

4.9

4.9

Ser Misd

Drive while Suspended/Revoked

Y/Total

2

3.5

11.0

7.3

Ser Misd

Eluding Pursuing Law Enforcem.

Y/Total

1

6.7

6.7

6.7

Ser Misd

Escape/Absence Misdemeanant

Y/Total

1

3.4

3.4

3.4

Ser Misd

Escape or Voluntary Absence

Y/Total

2

6.9

9.1

8.0

Ser Misd

OWI-First Offense

Y/Total

7

3.1

14.2

6.4

Ser Misd

Reckless use Firearm/Explosive

Y/Total

1

6.4

6.4

6.4

Ser Misd

Serious Misdemeanor Total

18

3.1

14.2

6.7

Sim Misd

Contempt of Judicial Magistrate

Y/Total

1

5.4

5.4

5.4

Sim Misd

Simple Misdemeanor Total

1

5.4

5.4

5.4

ALL PAROLES

3,114

2.1

285.2

25.8

 

Offense

Months Served

Class

Primary Offense

Number

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

50 Yr Fel

50 Year Felony Total

5

185.0

285.2

234.2

Other Fel.

Other Total

28

4.8

155.5

56.8

B Felony

Class B Felony Total

60

19.0

238.7

108.4

Habitual

Habitual Total

50

29.4

207.5

77.1

C Felony

Class C Felony Total

820

10.4

176.3

41.2

D Felony

Class D Felony Total

1,714

2.1

102.2

17.1

Agg Misd

Aggrav. Misdemeanor Total

418

2.4

50.5

9.5

Ser Misd

Serious Misdemeanor Total

18

3.1

14.2

6.7

Sim Misd

Simple Misdemeanor Total

1

5.4

5.4

5.4

ALL PAROLES

3,114

2.1

285.2

25.8

Note: Y=Yes. N=No. Y/Total means that all paroles for that offense involved consecutive sentences, and including separate lines for the offense total and consecutive offense total would be redundant. N/Total means that all sentences in that category did not involve consecutive sentences, and including separate lines for the offense total and non-consecutive total would be redundant.

For parolees with multiple offenses at the time of parole, the primary offense reflects the crime with the longest sentence or the crime against a person, if the sentence lengths are equal. Also, the months served for a concurrent sentence may exceed the statutory maximum sentence in cases where a court has imposed a new sentence following an inmate’s commitment to the Department of Corrections.

TABLE XV. PAROLE GRANTS 7/1/89 - 6/30/99

NON-FORCIBLE OFFENSES

FORCIBLE OFFENSES

TOTAL

OFFENSE CLASS

N

%

N

%

N

%

Other Felony

101

0.4%

0

0.0%

101

0.4%

Class A Felony

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

Class B Felony

43

0.2%

665

2.8%

708

3.0%

Habitual Felony

265

1.1%

0

0.0%

265

1.1%

Class C Felony

5,937

25.0%

1,338

5.6%

7,275

30.7%

Class D Felony

11,240

47.4%

237

1.0%

11,477

48.4%

Old Code

15

0.1%

44

0.2%

59

0.2%

Agg. Misdemeanor

3,686

15.5%

0

0.0%

3,686

15.5%

Serious Misdemeanor

159

0.7%

0

0.0%

159

0.7%

Simple Misdemeanor

1

0.0%

0

0.0%

1

0.0%

All Inmates

21,447

90.4%

2,284

9.6%

23,731

100.0%

 

 

 

IX. PAROLE REVOCATION

The parole revocation process begins with the receipt of a parole officer’s violation report form. The alleged violator is subsequently notified to appear before an Administrative Parole Judge for a parole revocation hearing. During this hearing, the Parole Judge determines whether or not the parolee is in violation of terms of the parole agreement. If the Judge finds that a parole violation has occurred, one of the following dispositions may be imposed:

  • reinstatement to parole with credit for jail time served;
  • reinstatement to parole with additional conditions imposed (including transfer to Intensive Parole Supervision);
  • diversion to an appropriate treatment program;
  • placement in the Violator’s Program;
  • revocation of parole and transfer to a work release program;
  • revocation of parole and return to prison.

In recent years the Board has attempted to develop a more complete continuum of alternatives for those violating the conditions of parole. One example, the Parole Violators Program, was developed during FY 1993 and includes a rigorous sixty-day treatment plan followed by significant aftercare in the community. A total of 120 parolees were received into the Violators Program during fiscal year 1999, an increase from the 109 referred in FY98. Parole revocation hearings were not required for all of the admissions to the Violators Program; the Judges approved 44 voluntary admissions.

The Parole Judges held 543 hearings this year, with 373 resulting in parole revocation. The hearings total was up from FY98, breaking a decade-long pattern of reduced hearings. Despite the increase in hearings, parole revocations dropped from 394 to 373. The percentage of hearings resulting in revocation dropped in FY99 to 68.7% after three years of increase (76.5% in FY98.

Pursuant to Iowa Code Section 908.10 and 908.10A, the Board’s Parole Judges do not hear cases involving convictions and sentences for new felony and aggravated misdemeanor offenses. In the event a parolee is convicted and sentenced for a felony or aggravated misdemeanor offense while on parole, the parole is deemed revoked as of the date of the commission of the new offense. While no parole revocation hearing is conducted for an automatic revocation, an Administrative Parole Judge is required to process the judgment and sentence on the new conviction and notify the parolee of the revocation. During this fiscal year, there were 65 automatic revocations for new felony convictions (down from 89 in FY98) and 19 revocations for new aggravated misdemeanor convictions (no change from FY98).

 

 

TABLE XVI. PAROLE REVOCATIONS, FY85-FY99

Fiscal Year

Revocation Hearings

Paroles Revoked

Violators Program

All Felony/Agg. Misd. Convictions

N

%

N

%

1985

395

312

79.0%

170

1986

486

403

82.9%

160

1987

575

486

84.5%

226

1988

605

502

83.0%

213

1989

789

650

82.4%

207

1990

611

450

73.6%

43*

1991

526

335

63.7%

115*

1992

583

346

59.3%

132*

1993

617

348

56.4%

105

17.0%

126*

1994

606

360

59.4%

153

25.2%

94*

1995

649

392

60.4%

297

45.8%

118

1996

605

335

55.4%

216

35.7%

109

1997

551

326

59.2%

158

28.7%

85

1998

515

394

76.5%

109

21.2%

108

1999

543

373

68.7%

120

22.1%

84

*Felonies only

The following chart reflects hearing dispositions within the revocation division for FY99:

 

Table XVII presents information on parole releases and revocations during FY99. The rates in the table are somewhat misleading, as true revocation rates will be based upon all those on parole rather than those paroled during a specific period. The make-up of the parole population will be somewhat "harder core" than those released during any period of time because the most serious offenders spend longer periods of time on parole and are therefore "at risk" for revocation for longer periods.

As was true in FY98, those paroled for forcible felonies in FY99 showed a slightly higher revocation rate than those paroled for non-forcible offenses, solely due to the relatively high rate of revocation for those convicted of Class B forcible felonies. In the other classes of felonies, those originally convicted of forcible felonies showed lower rates of revocation, probably reflecting the care the Board of Parole takes in paroling these offenders.

The rates for FY99 are sometimes based on small numbers of cases, so one has to be cautious in drawing conclusions. Among the larger offender groups, however, revocation rates were highest among Class C non-forcible felons. High rates of revocation were also seen for other non-forcible felonies, habitual non-forcible felonies, and Class B forcible felonies, but these rates are based on relatively few cases and may not represent a trend. The Board will continue to monitor offenders in these classes to ensure the maintenance of community safety.

 

TABLE XViI. PAROLE RELEASES AND REVOCATIONS

7/1/98 - 6/30/99

PAROLE OFFENSE

TOTAL PAROLES

NON-FORCIBLE REVOCATION

FORCIBLE REVOCATION

TOTAL

N

Rate

N

Rate

N

Rate

Class B Non-forcible

15

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

Habitual Non-forcible

50

5

10.0%

0

0.0%

5

10.0%

Class C Non-forcible

686

67

9.8%

2

0.3%

69

10.1%

Class D Non-forcible

1,689

169

10.0%

1

0.1%

170

10.1%

Other Non-forcible

28

6

21.4%

0

0.0%

6

21.4%

Old Code non-forcible

0

0

--

0

--

0

--

Agg. Misdemeanor

418

8

1.9%

0

0.0%

8

1.9%

Serious Misdemeanor

18

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

Simple Misdemeanor

1

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

Non-Forcible Subtotal

2,905

255

8.8%

3

0.1%

258

8.9%

Class A Forcible

0

0

--

0

--

0

--

Class B Forcible

47

10

21.3%

1

2.1%

11

23.4%

Habitual Forcible

0

0

--

0

--

0

--

Class C Forcible

134

5

3.7%

2

1.5%

7

5.2%

Class D Forcible

24

1

4.2%

0

0.0%

1

4.2%

Old Code Forcible

2

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

Forcible Subtotal

207

16

7.7%

3

1.4%

19

9.2%

Total

3,112

271

8.7%

6

0.2%

277

8.9%

Table XVIII presents a longer-term picture of parole revocation, containing information on total revocations and paroles since 1989. It illustrates the historically small number of new forcible felonies resulting in revocation of parole. Overall, less than one percent of those paroled since 1989 have been revoked for new forcible felonies, a record of which the Board is very proud. Revocations for all new offenses occurred in about one of every six paroles. The highest revocation rates were found for those originally committed for habitual non-forcible felonies (29.4 percent), Class B forcible felonies (28 percent), and Class C non-forcible felonies (26.6 percent). The lowest revocation rates for new offenses were found among misdemeanant parolees, who admittedly served only short periods on parole.

 

 

TABLE XVIII. PAROLE RELEASES AND REVOCATIONS 7/1/89 - 6/30/99

PAROLE OFFENSE

TOTAL PAROLES

NON-FORCIBLE REVOCATION

FORCIBLE REVOCATION

TOTAL

N

Rate

N

Rate

N

Rate

Class B Non-forcible

43

2

4.7%

0

0.0%

2

4.7%

Habitual Non-forcible

265

73

27.5%

5

1.9%

78

29.4%

Class C Non-forcible

5,937

1,536

25.9%

43

0.7%

1,579

26.6%

Class D Non-forcible

11,240

1,823

16.2%

20

0.2%

1,843

16.4%

Other Non-forcible

101

22

21.8%

1

1.0%

23

22.8%

Old Code non-forcible

15

1

6.7%

0

0.0%

1

6.7%

Agg. Misdemeanor

3,686

126

3.4%

1

0.0%

127

3.4%

Ser. Misdemeanor

159

3

1.9%

0

0.0%

3

1.9%

Simple Misdemeanor

1

0.0%

0.0%

0

0.0%

Non-Forcible Subtotal

21,447

3,586

16.7%

70

0.3%

3,656

17.0%

Class A Forcible

1

--

0

--

1

--

Class B Forcible

665

173

26.0%

13

2.0%

186

28.0%

Habitual Forcible

0

--

0

--

0

--

Class C Forcible

1,338

211

15.8%

20

1.5%

231

17.3%

Class D Forcible

237

16

6.8%

0

0.0%

16

6.8%

Old Code Forcible

44

5

11.4%

2

4.5%

7

15.9%

Forcible Subtotal

2,284

406

17.8%

35

1.5%

441

19.3%

Total

23,731

3,992

16.8%

105

0.4%

4,097

17.3%

 

  1. RECIDIVISM

Enhancing this year’s report is the availability of recidivism data on parolees and inmates who expired their sentences in FY96. Complete data on releases during that fiscal year were collected by the Division of Criminal and Juvenile Justice Planning (CJJP) in October of 1999, enabling new comparisons of parolees and expirations in terms of felony and misdemeanor recidivism. Lists of parolees and expirations were taken from the Adult Corrections Information System (ACIS), the information system maintained for Iowa’s prison system; 1,375 parolees and 361 expirations were tracked after release. Recidivism data were extracted from the Division of Criminal Investigation’s computerized criminal history system.

It should be noted that these criminal history data include, almost exclusively, data submitted by law enforcement agencies in Iowa. New arrests and convictions occurring outside the State are not included in these recidivism figures unless they resulted in re-incarceration here. This may create some bias against parolees in these figures because the out-of-state arrest of an offender not on parole will generally not be included in Iowa’s criminal history system. A parolee re-arrested similarly may be returned to Iowa with a new conviction that is included on Iowa’s "rap sheet."

There may also be some bias in the opposite direction, as some parolees are paroled to a detainer that might immediately result in their incarceration. They would not be at risk to recidivate, then, until their new incarceration ended. Thus, in some cases parolees may have had less time "at risk" than expirations. The current study has not controlled for such possibilities, although it is hoped that a later study will do so. The maximum amount of time "at risk" for offenders in this study was 1,584 days; the minimum period for parolees was 1,223 days, excepting any offenders incarcerated following their FY96 release. The maximum time at risk for end-of-sentence releases was 1,550 days; the minimum was 1,167 days, excepting those whose new incarceration was not due to a new post-release conviction. The mean follow-up period for parolees was 972 days and for expirations was 768 days. The difference in these means appears due to the higher recidivism of the end-of-sentence releases, as the means for those not re-arrested were similar. The shortest time from release to new conviction was three days for parolees and 25 days for those expiring their sentences.

For the purposes of this study, recidivism was defined as any new felony or misdemeanor conviction stemming from behavior occurring after release from Iowa’s prison system. This definition does not include traffic violations, although simple and serious misdemeanor traffic convictions were counted. A small number of releases (23 parolees and 14 end-of sentence releases) had pending charges when the recidivism data were collected. Because most arrests result in convictions, these pending offenses were treated as if they were convictions but, because there was no conviction date, they were not used in calculating the time elapsing before a new conviction.

Table XIX presents felony and misdemeanor recidivism rates for parolees and expirations released during FY96. The table presents data by crime classification, breaking out persons and non-persons offenses. In general, felony recidivism rates were highest for those expiring Class C and Class D felony sentences. Generally, parolees showed slightly lower felony recidivism rates than expirations (12.4 percent vs. 15.5 percent). Persons released on felony offenses showed higher felony re-conviction rates than misdemeanants. In every offense class large enough to permit conclusions, parolees showed lower re-conviction rates than the expirations.

Misdemeanor recidivism rates were also higher for those expiring sentences (41.2 percent for parolees and 49.9% for expirations). The highest misdemeanor recidivism rates were found for those who had expired misdemeanor sentences.

Table XIX. Parolee and Expiration Recidivism,

FY96 Releases

Convictions for Felonies and Misdemeanors

Post-Program Convictions**

OFFENSE AND

Felony

Misdemeanor

Total

RELEASE TYPE

Number

N

%

N

%

N

%

All Class B Parole

34

2

5.9%

6

17.6%

8

23.5%

All Class B Expirations

8

1

12.5%

2

25.0%

3

37.5%

All Class C Parole

429

49

11.4%

158

36.8%

207

48.3%

All Class C Expirations

86

17

19.8%

36

41.9%

53

61.6%

All Class D Parole

633

91

14.4%

272

43.0%

363

57.3%

All Class D Expirations

138

22

15.9%

70

50.7%

92

66.7%

All Other Felony Parole

22

2

9.1%

8

36.4%

10

45.5%

All Other Felony Expirations

2

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

All Felony Paroles

1,118

144

12.9%

444

39.7%

588

52.6%

All Felony Expirations

234

40

17.1%

108

46.2%

148

63.2%

All Agg Misdemeanor Parole

243

24

9.9%

114

46.9%

138

56.8%

All Agg Misdem. Expirations

114

15

13.2%

63

55.3%

78

68.4%

All Serious Misdem. Parole

14

2

14.3%

8

57.1%

10

71.4%

All Serious Misd. Expirations

13

1

7.7%

9

69.2%

10

76.9%

All Misdemeanor Paroles

257

26

10.1%

122

47.5%

148

57.6%

All Misdemeanor Expirations

127

16

12.6%

72

56.7%

88

69.3%

All Paroles

1,375

170

12.4%

566

41.2%

736

53.5%

All Expirations

361

56

15.5%

180

49.9%

236

65.4%

Felony recidivism rates are illustrated in the chart below.

 

 

 

 

A further breakdown of recidivism results is contained in Appendix VII. Offense classes there are broken down into offenses against persons, non-persons offenses, and sex offenses. The table shows the lowest recidivism rates among Class C and Class D sex offenders.

Another way to assess the nature of recidivism is to examine when it occurs. Historically, in Iowa and elsewhere, the bulk of recidivism has occurred within one to two years following release from correctional intervention. If a former client of a correctional program avoided arrest or re-conviction for a period of two years, it was generally thought that his chances of staying "clean" were good.

 

 

Table XX. Cumulative Recidivism Rate, Parolees Released in FY96

Length of Follow-up

Conviction Level

One Year

Two Years

Three Years

Four Years

New Felony

3.6%

7.1%

9.6%

11.9%

New Misdemeanor

15.3%

27.0%

35.5%

39.6%

Total

19.0%

34.1%

45.1%

51.5%

 

 

As the table and accompanying chart show, new convictions of Iowa parolees released in FY96 were concentrated during the first two years after release, but perhaps not to the degree found elsewhere. Less than one-third of the new felony convictions occurred within the first year after release, with a comparable number occurring during the following year. The pattern for new misdemeanor arrests was somewhat more concentrated in the first year, with 39 percent occurring during the first year and a lower percentage during the second year. Pie charts illustrating felony and misdemeanor recidivism, by year, are presented below.

Finally, the illustration below charts cumulative recidivism of parolees released in FY96, showing felony and misdemeanor re-convictions, by quarter. Total new convictions are also shown. The straighter line for new felonies suggests less decay in felony conviction rates, with convictions being more evenly distributed over the period. The curving misdemeanor line shows a higher concentration of new convictions in the initial quarters, with later quarters showing decreases in new convictions.

 

 

XI. VICTIM SERVICES

The Parole Board recognizes the special place that victims occupy as unwilling participants in some of the most violent episodes of the criminal justice system. The Board believes that this special place entitles victims to certain rights and privileges and that victims have special insight into the crimes committed by individuals that the Board considers for parole and work release. The Board believes that this insight demands that victims actively participate in the parole process, participation that should be as painless as possible.

To operationalize these beliefs about victims, the Parole Board first established an active program for victim participation in 1986. Pursuant to the program, the Board created the position of Victim Coordinator, whose primary responsibility is to assist victims who want to exercise the following rights established by the Victim and Witness Protection Act:

    1. Registered victims of forcible felonies may be notified of upcoming parole interviews.
    2. Registered victims of forcible felonies may submit their opinions concerning the release of the inmate either in writing or by appearing personally at the interviews.
    3. Registered victims of forcible felonies are entitled to be notified about decisions regarding the release of offenders.

The Board quickly recognized that requiring victims to testify in the presence of the offender was extremely stressful for most victims. Finding an innovative solution, the Board adopted the Iowa Communications Network as a vehicle to allow victims to testify at a site near their homes while avoiding direct contact with the offender.

The Parole Board received 369 registration requests from victims during Fiscal year 1999, with 299 of these (or 81 percent) meeting the statutory requirement as victims of forcible felonies. At the end of the fiscal year, 2,854 victims were registered with the Board, an increase of over 10% from the previous year. The Board also mailed 1,767 victim notifications during the fiscal year.

In Fiscal Year 1999, the Board conducted a seminar for Board members and staff on providing effective services to victims. Additionally, the Board coordinated with the 24 victim advocates serving throughout Iowa, soliciting their assistance in working with victims registered with the Board. The Board also plans to gain additional insight into how well it is fulfilling its responsibility to victims by conducting a detailed victim survey.

The chart on the following page shows victim services performed during Fiscal Year 1999. It is followed by an itemization of the Board’s expenditures for FY99.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table XXI. FY 1999 Financial Report

FUNDS AVAILABLE

Balance forward

$9,382.92

Appropriation

$978,551.00

Salary adjustment

$39,996.00

Reimbursement GASA

$30,000.00

Total funds available

$1,057,929.92

EXPENDITURES

Personal services

$797,633.33

Personal travel

$17,093.24

Travel

$1,737.39

State vehicle operations

$1,360.00

Depreciation

$2,864.94

Out-of-state travel

$18,797.75

Office supplies

$5,487.44

Equipment maintenance

$36,863.70

Communications

$53,600.32

Professional services

$1,320.00

Reimbursement other agencies

$201.08

Miscellaneous equipment

$6,345.85

Equipment maintenance

$7,000.00

Non-inventoried equipment

$14,907.20

Data processing inventoried equipment

$71,453.39

Data processing non-inventoried equipment

$17,481.04

Total expenditures

$1,054,146.67

 

APPENDIX I. Average Length of Stay in Months Until Parole, by Offense Class

Lead Offense Class

FY91

FY92

FY93

FY94

FY95

FY96

FY97

FY98

FY99

% Chng

Class B vs. Persons

89.6

89.7

92.2

103.5

95.4

102.7

108.6

118.9

130.7

45.9%

Class B Non-persons

--

--

--

34.9

36.4

45.0

57.6

63.2

56.1

--

Class B Felony Total

89.6

89.7

92.2

102.5

89.2

98.7

102.6

109.1

113.0

26.1%

Habitual vs. Persons

36.5

61.3

75.3

64.4

81.4

76.7

67.9

92.0

90.7

148.5%

Habitual Non-persons

69.0

79.8

77.5

87.1

100.6

88.8

111.0

78.3

72.3

4.8%

Habitual Felony Total

67.4

74.1

76.9

81.8

94.8

84.1

106.4

82.0

77.1

14.4%

Class C vs. Persons

39.8

36.9

42.1

41.7

46.5

46.0

47.4

49.1

55.5

39.4%

Class C Non-persons

37.4

34.7

38.1

40.5

40.8

44.1

46.9

43.6

38.0

1.6%

Class C Felony Total

37.8

35.1

38.9

40.8

41.9

44.5

47.0

44.8

41.2

9.0%

Class D vs. Persons

21.8

22.2

24.1

22.4

23.0

27.1

26.8

27.8

25.1

15.1%

Class D Non-persons

15.1

15.1

15.8

15.5

15.5

17.2

18.2

18.7

16.7

10.6%

Class D Felony Total

15.8

16.0

16.6

16.1

16.0

17.9

18.8

19.2

17.1

8.2%

Old Code Fel. vs. Persons

184.8

199.2

212.9

149.1

163.9

279.9

282.0

281.0

279.7

51.3%

Old Code Fel. Non-persons

97.3

--

110.0

--

78.1

--

--

--

--

--

Old Code Felony Total

164.6

199.2

198.2

149.1

135.3

279.9

282.0

281.0

279.7

69.9%

Other Felony Non-persons

32.7

--

40.6

39.4

35.6

42.6

52.3

54.2

56.8

73.6%

Felony Total Persons

53.7

48.7

50.0

50.5

50.2

52.8

55.7

56.9

61.3

14.1%

Felony Total Non-persons

26.1

24.3

26.1

25.7

24.9

26.7

27.5

26.8

24.3

-7.0%

Felony Total

31.4

29.3

30.4

29.8

28.4

30.6

31.3

30.8

28.5

-9.2%

Agg. Misd. vs. Persons

9.3

11.1

10.7

10.4

11.1

11.0

12.5

10.5

11.8

26.9%

Agg. Misd. Non-persons

7.9

7.6

8.2

7.9

8.4

8.4

9.3

9.0

9.1

15.2%

Agg. Misdemeanor Total

8.1

8.2

8.6

8.3

8.9

8.9

9.9

9.3

9.5

17.3%

Ser. Misdem. vs. Persons

8.4

9.5

10.0

15.0

7.5

9.2

9.3

16.7

7.7

-8.3%

Ser. Misd. Non-persons

9.0

12.5

5.7

9.0

10.8

8.3

7.6

9.7

6.4

-28.9%

Ser. Misdemeanor Total

8.9

12.1

7.1

10.3

9.6

8.6

8.1

11.2

6.7

-24.7%

Simple Misdemeanor

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

5.4

--

Misdem. Total Persons

9.2

11.1

10.6

10.6

10.9

10.9

12.3

10.9

11.6

25.8%

Misd. Total Non-persons

8.0

7.7

8.1

8.0

8.5

8.4

9.3

9.1

8.9

12.5%

Misdemeanor Total

8.2

8.3

8.5

8.4

8.9

8.9

9.8

9.5

9.4

14.5%

All Paroles vs. Persons

47.0

43.3

44.5

43.8

40.6

44.4

45.6

45.3

51.7

9.9%

All Paroles Non-persons

23.2

21.7

23.3

22.7

21.7

23.8

24.5

24.1

22.2

-4.1%

All Paroles

27.7

26.1

27.1

26.2

24.5

27.0

27.5

27.2

25.8

-7.2%

 

This table provides added support for the conclusion in the chapter on Prison Population that there has been a faster rise in inmates serving shorter sentences than the population as a whole. This table shows sometimes-large increases in average time served for all groups of offenders, but decreases in overall time in two of the three total categories at the bottom of the table. The only way this could happen is if the Board is paroling a higher percentage of inmates serving sentence for Class D felonies or less. This has enabled the Board to exercise greater caution in parole activity without significantly lengthening the overall time served.

Note that overall time served for those serving sentences for crimes against persons have risen in almost all categories (there are few inmates serving sentences for serious misdemeanors against persons, the only class of this type showing a decrease). It should also be remembered that, as will be shown in Appendix VI, the Board is allowing more sex offenders to expire their sentences, so by the end of the period in the table there were fewer sex offenders being paroled. If this group were still being paroled, there would be an even greater increase in the length of time until parole for those committed for crimes against persons.

 

 

 

 

 

 

APPENDIX II. Length of Stay in Months Until Parole for Selected Offenses, FY90-FY99

Net

%

Lead Offense

FY90

FY91

FY92

FY93

FY94

FY95

FY96

FY97

FY98

FY99

Chng

Change

Robbery-1st

97.3

93.7

74.6

97.4

111.5

89.0

118.0

117.6

131.2

135.2

37.9

39.0%

Sexual Abuse-2nd

82.5

85.1

77.8

88.8

93.3

89.2

84.4

88.5

101.0

130.7

48.2

58.4%

Habitual Felony

NA

64.4

74.1

74.9

81.8

94.8

84.1

106.4

82.0

77.1

--

--

Arson-2nd

49.4

33.4

26.7

48.4

41.1

44.4

45.7

41.0

34.3

43.2

-6.2

-12.6%

Burglary-2nd

42.7

41.4

39.8

43.3

46.1

47.5

54.2

59.4

58.2

58.5

15.8

37.0%

Manuf/Deliv Counterf

39.5

13.3

35.4

20.3

24.7

30.2

40.6

50.5

55.7

60.2

20.7

52.4%

Manuf/Deliv Cont.Subs

--

--

--

--

--

16.0

19.8

24.9

28.0

28.8

--

--

Manuf/Deliv Narcotics

31.6

23.0

28.2

41.7

53.1

57.2

62.9

76.7

90.3

79.8

48.2

152.5%

Robbery-2nd

42.7

44.5

33.5

42.1

45.5

51.2

48.9

52.9

53.2

64.3

21.6

50.6%

Sex Abuse-3rd

42.5

38.7

40.5

40.1

40.6

43.7

44.4

42.9

46.9

45.2

2.7

6.4%

Theft-1st

38.7

34.4

31.2

39.9

41.9

40.7

40.8

46.2

45.2

36.3

-2.4

-6.2%

Willful Injury

29.2

34.0

32.6

45.8

37.5

39.9

48.8

46.1

56.5

60.7

31.5

107.9%

Attempted Burglary-2nd

19.3

16.6

21.1

19.8

25.9

29.9

27.3

46.6

43.7

28.6

9.3

48.2%

Burglary-3rd

--

--

--

6.5

13.0

18.4

20.4

23.7

25.3

22.8

--

--

Criminal Mischief-2nd

15.3

18.5

21.7

19.8

17.4

23.8

24.8

38.0

22.6

20.9

5.6

36.6%

Forgery

12.9

17.6

22.1

20.6

23.0

22.0

20.9

24.3

21.7

21.3

8.4

65.1%

Going Armed w/intent

20.0

19.7

20.2

21.4

23.3

23.5

25.5

19.2

28.0

23.5

3.5

17.5%

Lascivious Acts

26.5

24.0

28.7

25.2

23.5

25.6

29.4

29.0

28.7

49.6

23.1

87.2%

Manuf/Deliv Marijuana

--

12.3

11.4

11.0

15.1

19.8

25.4

24.2

31.5

29.8

--

--

Manuf/Deliv Marij<50 kilo

--

--

--

--

4.9

10.2

12.9

15.7

17.3

16.9

--

--

Manu./Deliv Non-Narc.

14.4

16.2

19.3

23.8

38.5

35.2

36.3

--

--

--

--

--

OMVUI/OWI-3rd

11.4

11.1

11.3

12.2

11.4

10.9

12.3

12.0

12.4

10.0

-1.4

-12.3%

ClassD-Trnsprt Firearm/Fel

--

--

10.8

14.9

21.7

21.3

21.9

23.4

23.0

21.0

--

--

Agg.Misd.Trns Firearm/Fel

8.8

15.8

10.4

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Theft-2nd

18.7

18.1

17.5

20.6

21.0

21.1

21.9

22.6

24.2

22.2

3.5

18.7%

Assault with a weapon

8.5

9.0

8.9

10.4

10.3

11.1

13.3

11.9

13.5

--

--

Asslt w/Intent com ser inj

10.3

8.0

11.0

8.4

9.2

11.1

11.2

13.8

10.9

9.6

-0.7

-6.8%

Attempted Burglary-3rd

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

11.5

--

--

Driving while barred

6.2

6.2

8.2

7.5

10.8

9.2

8.9

9.1

8.6

9.2

3.0

48.4%

OMVUI/OWI-2nd

7.2

6.9

6.7

6.6

6.2

6.7

6.4

6.7

6.4

6.5

-0.7

-9.7%

OMVWOOC

9.6

9.7

9.3

9.3

9.7

12.9

11.4

10.1

11.6

11.7

2.1

21.9%

Prostitution

7.8

8.0

8.3

9.8

8.7

9.9

10.1

10.6

10.1

12.5

4.7

60.3%

Theft-3rd

7.9

9.0

7.6

9.5

8.4

10.7

10.1

12.7

11.2

11.8

3.9

49.4%

Source: Annual Report of the Board of Parole

Several comments should be made pertaining to Appendix II.

Crimes were selected on the basis of their frequency of parole, and therefore their potential for impact on the prison population. Each crime included in the table has accounted for at least twenty paroles in at least one year included on the table. Offenses which are no longer in the Criminal Code but might previously have accounted for large number of paroles have not been included (e.g., Class D False Uttering of a Forged Instrument).

Offenses are grouped by felony class. Class B offenses include Robbery-First Degree and Sexual Abuse second-degree, each having a penalty of up to twenty-five years’ imprisonment. The Habitual Criminal statute calls for up to fifteen years’ incarceration. Class C Felonies (with ten-year maximums) on the table begin with Arson-Second Degree and end with Willful Injury. Class D Felonies begin with Attempted Burglary-Second Degree and end with Receiving, Transporting, and Possessing Firearms and Devices by a Felon (which prior to 1991 had been an Aggravated Misdemeanor). Aggravated Misdemeanors end the table.

Figures for habitual criminals are not available for FY90 as a group.

Although the crimes in the table were selected due to frequency, small numbers of paroles exist in some cells. Wide fluctuation from year-to-year in length of stay suggests small numbers.

APPENDIX III. Decisions by Offense Class and Risk, FY99

Parole Release

Work Release

Release Denied

Total

Offense Class

Average Risk

Average Risk

Average Risk

Average Risk

Total N

Habitual vs. person

7.92

9.00

8.42

8.41

71

Habitual not person

7.08

7.43

7.37

7.32

200

Habitual Total

7.28

7.84

7.64

7.61

271

B Felony vs. person

6.98

7.97

6.10

6.21

988

B Felony not person

4.87

4.45

4.88

4.82

83

B Felony Total

6.48

7.17

6.03

6.11

1,071

C Felony vs. person

5.62

6.61

5.77

5.83

1,234

C Felony not person

4.97

6.18

6.07

5.73

2,012

C Felony Total

5.09

6.30

5.93

5.77

3,246

D Felony vs. person

5.36

6.50

5.61

5.66

609

D Felony not person

3.67

5.69

5.85

4.86

3,644

D Felony Total

3.76

5.79

5.80

4.97

4,253

Old Code Felony vs person

9.00

9.00

9.00

9.00

16

Old Code Felony not person

--

--

9.00

9.00

1

Old Code Total

9.00

9.00

9.00

9.00

17

Compact Felony not person

--

--

4.29

4.29

7

Compact Felony Total

--

--

4.29

4.29

7

Other Felony not person

5.36

5.40

5.87

5.61

64

Other Felony Total

5.36

5.40

5.87

5.61

64

Total Felonies vs. person

5.88

6.15

5.93

6.00

2,918

Total Felonies not person

4.12

5.93

5.91

5.24

6,011

Total Felonies

4.32

5.98

5.92

5.49

8,929

Agg. Misdem. vs. person

4.71

5.60

5.02

4.95

282

Agg. Misdem. not person

2.82

5.44

4.44

3.72

739

Agg. Misdemeanor Total

3.13

5.46

4.65

4.06

1,021

Serious Misdem. vs. person

5.75

--

6.20

6.07

14

Serious Misdem. not person

1.86

--

4.38

3.37

35

Serious Misdemeanor Total

2.72

6.13

4.97

4.14

49

Simple Misdemeanor

5.00

--

--

5.00

1

Total Misdem. vs. person

4.77

5.60

5.07

5.00

296

Total Misdem. not person

2.79

5.44

4.44

3.71

775

Total Misdemeanors

3.12

5.46

4.67

4.06

1,071

All Crimes vs. person

5.66

6.91

5.86

5.91

3,214

All Crimes not person

3.94

5.91

5.80

5.07

6,786

Total All Crimes

4.15

6.13

5.83

5.34

10,000

Total N

3,114

1,067

5,825

10,006

Note: Risk scores range from one to nine, with higher numbers representing the highest risk. Total N’s differ by six because of six offenses not designated as against person or not against person.

 

 

 

APPENDIX IV. FY 1999 Decisions by Risk

Parole Release

Work Release

Release Denied

Total

Risk Level

N

%

N

%

N

%

N

%

9

366

16.3%

266

11.8%

1,620

71.9%

2,252

22.5%

8

249

19.7%

163

12.9%

851

67.4%

1,263

12.6%

7

143

29.5%

75

15.5%

267

55.1%

485

4.8%

6

386

28.1%

161

11.7%

828

60.2%

1,375

13.7%

5

409

41.4%

145

14.7%

434

43.9%

988

9.9%

4

171

41.9%

57

14.0%

180

44.1%

408

4.1%

3

96

22.5%

30

7.0%

300

70.4%

426

4.3%

2

587

39.3%

139

9.3%

767

51.4%

1,493

14.9%

1

123

22.3%

31

5.6%

398

72.1%

552

5.5%

Not scored

584

76.4%

--

0.0%

180

23.6%

764

7.6%

Total

3,114

31.1%

1,067

10.7%

5,825

58.2%

10,006

100.0%

Note: Percentages in columns for Parole Release, Work Release, and Release Denied add horizontally. Percentages in Total column add vertically.

Decisions by Risk, Forcible Offenses

Parole Release

Work Release

Release Denied

Total

Risk Level

N

%

N

%

N

%

N

%

9

72

9.0%

68

8.5%

664

82.6%

804

36.9%

8

25

7.6%

32

9.7%

273

82.7%

330

15.2%

7

--

0.0%

--

0.0%

2

100.0%

2

0.1%

6

34

10.6%

27

8.4%

259

80.9%

320

14.7%

5

--

0.0%

1

20.0%

4

80.0%

5

0.2%

4

3

9.1%

4

12.1%

26

78.8%

33

1.5%

3

21

11.4%

11

5.9%

153

82.7%

185

8.5%

2

27

14.1%

8

4.2%

157

81.8%

192

8.8%

1

26

9.1%

7

2.5%

252

88.4%

285

13.1%

Not scored

--

0.0%

--

0.0%

20

100.0%

20

0.9%

Total

208

9.6%

158

7.3%

1,810

83.2%

2,176

100.0%

Note: Percentages in columns for Parole Release, Work Release, and Release Denied add horizontally. Percentages in Total column add vertically.

 

Decisions by Risk, Non-Forcible Offenses

Parole Release

Work Release

Release Denied

Total

Risk Level

N

%

N

%

N

%

N

%

9

294

20.3%

198

13.7%

955

66.0%

1,447

18.5%

8

224

24.1%

131

14.1%

576

61.9%

931

11.9%

7

143

29.7%

75

15.6%

264

54.8%

482

6.2%

6

352

33.4%

134

12.7%

568

53.9%

1,054

13.5%

5

409

41.6%

144

14.6%

430

43.7%

983

12.6%

4

168

44.8%

53

14.1%

154

41.1%

375

4.8%

3

75

31.1%

19

7.9%

147

61.0%

241

3.1%

2

560

43.0%

131

10.1%

610

46.9%

1,301

16.6%

1

97

36.3%

24

9.0%

146

54.7%

267

3.4%

Not scored

584

78.6%

0

0.0%

159

21.4%

743

9.5%

Total

2,906

37.1%

909

11.6%

4,009

51.2%

7,824

100.0%

Note: Percentages in columns for Parole Release, Work Release, and Release Denied add horizontally. Percentages in Total column add vertically.

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix V. Average Time Served in Months Prior to Parole, by Risk and Offense Class, FY99

Risk Level

Class B

Habitual

Class C

Class D

Agg. Misd.

Ser. Misd.

Total

Total N

One

69.8

--

31.7

13.4

9.0

3.5

23.4

123

Two

86.0

53.6

31.6

16.9

8.9

5.6

20.8

587

Three

114.5

44.5

40.1

23.6

11.5

8.5

28.9

96

Four

76.4

--

31.2

18.8

10.0

9.1

22.5

171

Five

65.2

36.4

35.2

20.5

11.6

--

25.2

409

Six

99.4

64.5

41.3

20.6

12.7

9.4

30.4

386

Seven

37.9

65.8

60.8

24.7

11.1

--

35.6

143

Eight

114.0

80.5

50.4

26.1

11.6

4.9

39.8

249

Nine

144.8

101.7

57.4

26.5

14.6

7.3

48.5

366

Unknown

--

--

30.2

6.4

6.0

6.1

6.6

584

Total

113.0

77.1

41.2

17.1

9.5

6.7

25.8

3,114

Total N

63

12

820

1,714

418

18

 

 

 

 

APPENDIX VI. Expiration of Sentences & Paroles Granted: FY99

Offense

Discharges

Paroles

% Discharges

Class B Felony

Arson-1st

0

1

0.0%

Attempted Murder

2

4

33.3%

Burglary-1st

0

4

0.0%

Kidnapping-2nd

0

2

0.0%

Class B Drug Offenses

0

15

0.0%

Murder-2nd

0

2

0.0%

Sex Abuse-2nd

7

2

77.8%

Robbery-1st

3

33

8.3%

Total Class B Felony

12

63

16.0%

Class C Felony, Persons

Aiding and Abetting

0

1

0.0%

Assault in Felony-Injury

0

3

0.0%

Child Endangerment-Injury

0

8

0.0%

Conspiracy-Forcible Felony

1

7

12.5%

Vehicular Homicide (old Code)

1

7

12.5%

Willful Injury

5

18

21.7%

Terrorism w/Intent

1

13

7.1%

Sex Abuse-3rd

35

14

71.4%

Kidnapping-3rd

1

2

33.3%

Reckless Use of Firearm

0

1

0.0%

Robbery-2nd

12

74

14.0%

Voluntary Manslaughter

0

3

0.0%

Use of Firearm in Drug Offense

0

1

0.0%

Attempted Burg-1st

1

0

100.0%

Abandon/Neglect Dependent Person

1

0

100.0%

Total Class C Felony, Persons

58

152

27.6%

 

Class C Felony, Non-Persons

Arson-2nd

0

16

0.0%

Delivery of Drugs

18

422

4.1%

Criminal Mischief-1st

0

3

0.0%

Burglary-2nd

37

111

25.0%

Fraudulent Practices-1st

0

1

0.0%

Money Laundering

0

1

0.0%

Pandering

0

2

0.0%

Poss. Burglar's Tools

0

1

0.0%

Poss. Stolen Property

0

1

0.0%

Poss. Explosives

0

4

0.0%

Theft-1st

10

106

8.6%

Total Class C Felony, Non-Persons

65

668

8.9%

Total Class C Felony

123

820

13.0%

Class D Felony, Persons

Involuntary Manslaughter

1

3

25.0%

Domestic Abuse Assault-3rd or Subs.

0

11

0.0%

Interference with Official Acts

0

1

0.0%

Interference with Correctional Worker

0

1

0.0%

Stalking

2

3

40.0%

Assault-Participating in Felony

6

15

28.6%

Assault-Peace Officer, etc.

2

3

40.0%

Terrorism

4

8

33.3%

Going Armed w/Intent

10

21

32.3%

Assault to Sex Abuse-injury

6

1

85.7%

Lascivious Acts w/Child

39

6

86.7%

Extortion

4

9

30.8%

Threats

0

3

0.0%

Incest

4

0

100.0%

Total Class D Felony, Persons

78

85

47.9%

Class D Felony, Non-Persons

Delivery of Drugs

10

104

8.8%

Prescription Drugs-Habitual

1

2

33.3%

Prohibited Sales of Tickets

0

4

0.0%

OWI-3rd

53

666

7.4%

Fail Obtain Drug Tax Stamp

5

26

16.1%

Insurance Fraud

1

0

100.0%

Nonsupport

0

1

0.0%

Tax Evasion

0

2

0.0%

Conspiracy-Felony (property)

2

8

20.0%

Criminal Gang Participation

0

2

0.0%

Attempted Burg-2nd

3

5

37.5%

Burglary-3rd

73

267

21.5%

Theft-2nd

39

195

16.7%

Forgery

60

216

21.7%

Unauthorized Use-Credit Cards

1

7

12.5%

Criminal Mischief-2nd

5

12

29.4%

Escape

2

10

16.7%

Fraudulent Practices-2nd

0

7

0.0%

Fraudulent Submissions

0

1

0.0%

Furnishing Intoxicants to Inmates

1

1

50.0%

Furnishing Drugs to Inmates

2

3

40.0%

Possession Firearm by Felon

15

63

19.2%

Possession Stolen Property

0

1

0.0%

Reckless Use of Firearm

0

1

0.0%

Soliciting Another to Commit Felony

0

1

0.0%

Unauthorized Poss. Offensive Weapon

1

6

14.3%

Pandering

1

1

50.0%

Violating Custodial Order

0

2

0.0%

Fail to Appear-Felony Charge

1

15

6.3%

Total Class D Felony, Non-Persons

276

1,629

14.5%

Total Class D Felony

354

1,714

17.1%

Other Felony

Controlled Substance-Firearm

1

8

11.1%

Controlled Subst-2nd/Subseq. Offense

1

11

8.3%

Controlled Substance-School or Park

0

9

0.0%

Robbery with Aggravation

0

2

0.0%

Habitual Offender

2

50

3.8%

Total Other Felony

4

80

4.8%

Total Felonies

493

2,677

15.6%

 

Aggravated Misdemeanor, Persons

Assault to Inflict Serious Injury

12

11

52.2%

Assault w/Weapon

8

11

42.1%

Assault-Peace Officer, etc.

3

3

50.0%

Assault to Sex Abuse-no injury

13

1

92.9%

Attempt Entice Away Child

1

0

100.0%

Child Endangerment-no injury

5

5

50.0%

Domestic Abuse

41

32

56.2%

Harassment-1st

4

2

66.7%

Indecent Contact w/Child

11

0

100.0%

Involuntary Manslaughter

0

1

0.0%

Leave Scene-Death Accident

1

0

100.0%

Serious Injury by Vehicle

0

1

0.0%

Stalking

3

0

100.0%

Tampering w/Witness

1

0

100.0%

Total Aggravated Misdemeanor Persons

103

67

60.6%

Aggravated Misdemeanor Non-Persons

Attempted Burg-3rd

21

19

52.5%

Accessory After the Fact-Felony

0

4

0.0%

Bootlegging-3rd and Subsequent

0

3

0.0%

Carrying Weapons

5

8

38.5%

Conspiracy to Commit Misdemeanor

0

1

0.0%

Criminal Mischief-3rd

6

5

54.5%

Driving While Barred

17

54

23.9%

Fail to Register-Sex Offender

4

0

100.0%

Forgery

3

4

42.9%

Fraudulent Practices-3rd

0

3

0.0%

Impersonating Public Official

0

1

0.0%

Interference with Official Acts

0

1

0.0%

OperateVehicle w/o Consent

18

22

45.0%

OWI-2nd

20

137

12.7%

Poss. Burglar Tools

2

0

100.0%

Poss. Firearm-Felon (old)

1

0

100.0%

Poss. Controlled Subs. W/o Rx

0

1

0.0%

Prohibited Acts-Drug Dispenser

2

2

50.0%

Prohibited Acts Schedule IV or V

0

1

0.0%

Prostitution

9

25

26.5%

Public Intoxication-Habitual

5

0

100.0%

Reckless Use of Firearm

0

1

0.0%

Tampering w/Records

1

1

50.0%

Theft-3rd

39

53

42.4%

Unauthorized Use-Credit Cards

6

5

54.5%

Total Aggravated Misdem. Non-Persons

159

351

31.2%

Total Aggravated Misdemeanor

262

418

38.5%

Serious Misdemeanor, Persons

Assaulting Peace Officer

0

1

0.0%

Assault w/Injury

1

0

100.0%

Contempt-Domestic Abuse Order

1

0

100.0%

Domestic Abuse

4

2

66.7%

False Imprisonment

1

0

100.0%

Indecent Exposure

2

0

100.0%

Interference w/Corrections Worker

1

0

100.0%

Total Serious Misdemeanor, Persons

10

3

76.9%

Serious Misdemeanor, Non-Persons

Contempt-District Court

1

1

50.0%

Criminal Mischief-4th

2

0

100.0%

Driving w/License Revoked/Suspended

2

3

40.0%

Driving-SR Not on File

1

0

100.0%

Eluding-Motor Vehicle

1

1

50.0%

Escape of Misdemeanant

1

1

50.0%

Fail to Appear-Not Felony

1

0

100.0%

Interference w/Official Acts

2

0

100.0%

OWI-1st

0

7

0.0%

Possession Controlled Substance

3

0

100.0%

Public Intoxication-2nd Offense

1

0

100.0%

Reckless Use of Firearm or Explosive

0

1

0.0%

Theft-4th

1

0

100.0%

Voluntary Absence

1

2

33.3%

Total Ser. Misdemeanor, Non-Persons

17

16

51.5%

Total Serious Misdemeanor

27

19

58.7%

Total Misdemeanors

289

437

39.8%

Grand Total

782

3,114

20.1%

All Sex Offenses

121

24

83.4%

All Others

661

3,090

17.6%

 

 

Total Class B Felony

12

63

16.0%

Total Class C Felony, Persons

58

152

27.6%

Total Class C Felony, Non-Persons

65

668

8.9%

Total Class C Felony

123

820

13.0%

Total Class D Felony, Persons

78

85

47.9%

Total Class D Felony, Non-Persons

276

1,629

14.5%

Total Class D Felony

354

1,714

17.1%

Total Other Felony

4

80

4.8%

Total Felonies

493

2,677

15.6%

Total Aggravated Misdemeanor Persons

103

67

60.6%

Total Aggravated Misdem. Non-Persons

159

351

31.2%

Total Aggravated Misdemeanor

262

418

38.5%

Total Serious Misdemeanor, Persons

10

3

76.9%

Total Ser. Misdemeanor, Non-Persons

17

16

51.5%

Total Serious Misdemeanor

27

19

58.7%

Total Misdemeanors

289

437

39.8%

Grand Total

782

3,114

20.1%

 

 

 

APPENDIX VII. Parolee and Expiration Recidivism, FY96 Releases

Convictions for Felonies and Misdemeanors

Post-Program Convictions**

RELEASE

OFFENSE

Felony

Misdemeanor

Total

TYPE

SERIOUSNESS

Number

N

%

N

%

N

%

PAROLE

B Felony

28

2

7.1%

5

17.9%

7

25.0%

B Felony Sex

6

0

0.0%

1

16.7%

1

16.7%

All Class B

34

2

5.9%

6

17.6%

8

23.5%

C Felony Person

49

4

8.2%

13

26.5%

17

34.7%

C Felony Not Person

354

44

12.4%

141

39.8%

185

52.3%

C Felony Sex

26

1

3.8%

4

15.4%

5

19.2%

All Class C

429

49

11.4%

158

36.8%

207

48.3%

D Felony Person

38

5

13.2%

15

39.5%

20

52.6%

D Felony Not Person

587

86

14.7%

253

43.1%

339

57.8%

D Felony Sex

8

0

0.0%

4

50.0%

4

50.0%

All Class D

633

91

14.4%

272

43.0%

363

57.3%

Other Felony

22

2

9.1%

8

36.4%

10

45.5%

Agg Misd Person

55

5

9.1%

25

45.5%

30

54.5%

Ag Misd Not Person

188

19

10.1%

89

47.3%

108

57.4%

All Agg Misd.

243

24

9.9%

114

46.9%

138

56.8%

Ser Misd Person

5

0

0.0%

3

60.0%

3

60.0%

Ser Misd Not Person

9

2

22.2%

5

55.6%

7

77.8%

All Serious Misd

14

2

14.3%

8

57.1%

10

71.4%

PAROLEES

1,375

170

12.4%

566

41.2%

736

53.5%

EXPIRATION

B Felony

4

1

25.0%

1

25.0%

2

50.0%

B Felony Sex

4

0

0.0%

1

25.0%

1

25.0%

All Class B

8

1

12.5%

2

25.0%

3

37.5%

C Felony Person

10

3

30.0%

4

40.0%

7

70.0%

C Felony Not Person

53

12

22.6%

23

43.4%

35

66.0%

C Felony Sex

23

2

8.7%

9

39.1%

11

47.8%

All Class C

86

17

19.8%

36

41.9%

53

61.6%

D Felony Person

16

4

25.0%

7

43.8%

11

68.8%

D Felony Not Person

90

17

18.9%

49

54.4%

66

73.3%

D Felony Sex

32

1

3.1%

14

43.8%

15

46.9%

All Class D

138

22

15.9%

70

50.7%

92

66.7%

Other Felony

2

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

Ag Misdem. Person

54

7

13.0%

27

50.0%

34

63.0%

Ag Misd. Not Person

60

8

13.3%

36

60.0%

44

73.3%

All Agg Misdem.

114

15

13.2%

63

55.3%

78

68.4%

Serious Misd. Person

6

0

0.0%

4

66.7%

4

66.7%

Ser Misd Not Person

7

1

14.3%

5

71.4%

6

85.7%

All Serious Misdem.

13

1

7.7%

9

69.2%

10

76.9%

EXPIRATIONS

361

56

15.5%

180

49.9%

236

65.4%

TOTAL

B Felony

32

3

9.4%

6

18.8%

9

28.1%

B Felony Sex

10

0

0.0%

2

20.0%

2

20.0%

All Class B

42

3

7.1%

8

19.0%

11

26.2%

C Felony Person

59

7

11.9%

17

28.8%

24

40.7%

C Fel Not Person

407

56

13.8%

164

40.3%

220

54.1%

C Felony Sex

49

3

6.1%

13

26.5%

16

32.7%

All Class C

515

66

12.8%

194

37.7%

260

50.5%

D Felony Person

54

9

16.7%

22

40.7%

31

57.4%

D Fel Not Person

677

103

15.2%

302

44.6%

405

59.8%

D Felony Sex

40

1

2.5%

18

45.0%

19

47.5%

All Class D

771

113

14.7%

342

44.4%

455

59.0%

Other Felony

24

2

8.3%

8

33.3%

10

41.7%

Agg Misd Person

109

12

11.0%

52

47.7%

64

58.7%

Ag Misd Not Person

248

27

10.9%

125

50.4%

152

61.3%

All Agg Misd.

357

39

10.9%

177

49.6%

216

60.5%

Ser Misd Person

11

0

0.0%

7

63.6%

7

63.6%

Ser Misd Not Person

16

3

18.8%

10

62.5%

13

81.3%

All Serious Misd

27

3

11.1%

17

63.0%

20

74.1%

TOTAL

1,736

226

13.0%

746

43.0%

972

56.0%

** Convictions include the first new conviction following release. In certain instances offenders included here as having been convicted of new misdemeanors have since been convicted of new felonies. A small number of offenses included were pending at the time of data collection; they are included here as convictions here due to generally high conviction rates.



2003 Iowa Board of Parole,
Advanced Technologies Group, Inc.