Modification of Ca-Montmorillonite by Low-Temperature Heat Treatment, HR-106, 1964

(1964) Modification of Ca-Montmorillonite by Low-Temperature Heat Treatment, HR-106, 1964. Transportation, Department of


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Objectives of this investigation were to measure the effects of moderate heat treatments (below the dehydroxylation temperature) on physical and chemical properties of a calcium-montmorillonite clay. Previous workers have noted the reduction in cation exchange capacity and swelling property after heating in the range 200 to 400°C, and have suggested several possible explanations, such as hysteresis effect, increased inter-layer attractions due to removal of inter-layer water, or changes in the disposition of inter-layer or layer surface ions. The liquid limits of Ca-montmorillonite were steadily decreased with increased temperature of treatment, levelling at about 450°C. The plastic limit decreased slightly up to 350°C, above which samples could no longer be rolled into threads. The gradual change is in contrast with sudden major changes noted for weight loss (maximum rates of change at l00°C and 500°C), glycol retention surface area (520°C), and d001 diffraction peak intensity (17.7 A spacing) and breadth after glycolation (530°C). Other properties showing more gradual reductions with heat treatment were amount of exchangeable calcium (without water soaking), cation exchange capacity by NH4AC method, and d001 intensity (21 A spacing) after storing at 100% r.h. one month and re-wetting with water. Previous water soaking allowed much greater release of fixed Ca++ up to 450°C. Similar results were obtained with cation exchange capacities when samples were treated with N CaCl2 solution. The 21.0 A peak intensity curve showed close similarity to the liquid limit and plastic index curves in the low temperature range, and an explanation is suggested.

Item Type: Departmental Report
Keywords: Cation exchange, Clay minerals, Liquid limits, Materials at high or low temperatures, Montmorillonite
Subjects: Transportation
Transportation > Materials
Transportation > Materials > Gravel and aggregates
Transportation > Research
ID Code: 16996
Deposited By: Iowa DOT Library
Deposited On: 02 Jun 2014 11:55
Last Modified: 18 Sep 2014 15:32