Strengthening of Existing Single Span Steel Beam and Concrete Deck Bridges, HR-238, Part II, 1985

(1985) Strengthening of Existing Single Span Steel Beam and Concrete Deck Bridges, HR-238, Part II, 1985. Transportation, Department of


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The unifying objective of Phases I and II of this study was to determine the feasibility of the post-tensioning strengthening method and to implement the technique on two composite bridges in Iowa. Following completion of these two phases, Phase III was undertaken and is documented in this report. The basic objectives of Phase III were further monitoring bridge behavior (both during and after post-tensioning) and developing a practical design methodology for designing the strengthening system under investigation. Specific objectives were: to develop strain and force transducers to facilitate the collection of field data; to investigate further the existence and effects of the end restraint on the post-tensioning process; to determine the amount of post-tensioning force loss that occurred during the time between the initial testing and the retesting of the existing bridges; to determine the significance of any temporary temperature-induced post-tensioning force change; and to develop a simplified design methodology that would incorporate various variables such as span length, angle-of-skew, beam spacing, and concrete strength. Experimental field results obtained during Phases II and III were compared to the theoretical results and to each other. Conclusions from this research are as follows: (1) Strengthening single-span composite bridges by post-tensioning is a viable, economical strengthening technique. (2) Behavior of both bridges was similar to the behavior observed from the bridges during field tests conducted under Phase II. (3) The strain transducers were very accurate at measuring mid-span strain. (4) The force transducers gave excellent results under laboratory conditions, but were found to be less effective when used in actual bridge tests. (5) Loss of post-tensioning force due to temperature effects in any particular steel beam post-tensioning tendon system were found to be small. (6) Loss of post-tensioning force over a two-year period was minimal. (7) Significant end restraint was measured in both bridges, caused primarily by reinforcing steel being continuous from the deck into the abutments. This end restraint reduced the effectiveness of the post-tensioning but also reduced midspan strains due to truck loadings. (8) The SAP IV finite element model is capable of accurately modeling the behavior of a post-tensioned bridge, if guardrails and end restraints are included in the model. (9) Post-tensioning distribution should be separated into distributions for the axial force and moment components of an eccentric post-tensioning force. (10) Skews of 45 deg or less have a minor influence on post-tensioning distribution. (11) For typical Iowa three-beam and four-beam composite bridges, simple regression-derived formulas for force and moment fractions can be used to estimate post-tensioning distribution at midspan. At other locations, a simple linear interpolation gives approximately correct results. (12) A simple analytical model can accurately estimate the flexural strength of an isolated post-tensioned composite beam.

Item Type: Departmental Report
Keywords: Bridges, Composite structures, Design methods, Finite element method, Mathematical models, Monitoring, Posttensioning, Skew bridges, Strength of materials, Strengthening (Maintenance), Structural analysis, Structural mechanics, Temperature, Thermal stresses, Transducers, Composite bridges, End restraint, Structural behavior
Subjects: Transportation
Transportation > Bridges and tunnels
Transportation > Roads and highways
Transportation > Design and Construction
ID Code: 16225
Deposited By: Iowa DOT Library
Deposited On: 05 Mar 2014 13:48
Last Modified: 11 Aug 2015 12:01