Time-Temperature Strength-Reaction Product Relationships in Lime-Bentonite-Water Mixtures, HR-111, 1965

(1965) Time-Temperature Strength-Reaction Product Relationships in Lime-Bentonite-Water Mixtures, HR-111, 1965. Transportation, Department of


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The interrelation of curing time, curing temperature, strength, and reactions in lime-bentonite-water mixtures was examined. Samples were molded at constant density and moisture content and then cured for periods of from 1 to 56 days at constant temperatures that ranged from 5C to 60C. After the appropriate curing time the samples were tested for unconfined compressive strength. The broken samples were then analyzed by x-ray diffractometer and spectrophotometer to determine the identity of the reaction products present after each curing period. It was found that the strength gain of lime-clay mixtures cured at different temperatures is due to different phases of the complex reaction, lime & clay to CSH(gel) to CSH(II) to CSH(I) to tobermorite. The farther the reaction proceeds, the higher the strength. There was also evidence of lattice substitutions in the structure of the calcium silicate hydrates at curing temperatures of 50C and higher. No consistent relationship between time, temperature, strength, and the S/A ration of reaction products existed, but in order to achieve high strengths the apparent C/S ration had to be less than two. The curing temperature had an effect on the strength developed by a given amount of reacted silica in the cured lime-clay mixture, but at a given curing temperature the cured sample that had the largest amount of reacted silica gave the highest strength. Evidence was found to indicate that during the clay reaction some calcium is indeed adsorbed onto the clay structure rather than entering into a pozzolanic reaction. Finally, it was determined that it is possible to determine the amount of silica and alumina in lime-clay reaction products by spectrophotometric analysis with sufficient accuracy for comparison purposes. The spectrophotometric analysis techniques used during the investigation were simple and were not time consuming.

Item Type: Departmental Report
Keywords: Bentonite, Calcium oxide, Clay, Compression tests, Concrete curing, Density, Diffraction, Forming, Moisture content, Samples, Spectrophotometers, Strength of materials, Temperature, Testing, Time, Water, X rays, Calcium silicate hydrate, X-ray diffraction
Subjects: Transportation
Transportation > Materials
Transportation > Roads and highways
Transportation > Research
ID Code: 17251
Deposited By: Iowa DOT Library
Deposited On: 19 Jun 2014 11:58
Last Modified: 19 Jun 2014 11:58
URI: https://publications.iowa.gov/id/eprint/17251