Freeze-Thaw Durability of Concretes with and without Class C Fly Ash, MLR-94-9 Phase I, 1997

(1997) Freeze-Thaw Durability of Concretes with and without Class C Fly Ash, MLR-94-9 Phase I, 1997. Transportation, Department of


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The freeze-thaw resistance of concretes was studied. Nine concrete mixes, made with five cements and cement-Class C fly ash combinations, were exposed to freeze-thaw cycling following 110 to 222 days of moist curing. Prior to the freeze-thaw cycling, the specimens were examined by a low-vacuum scanning electron microscope (SEM) for their microstructure. The influence of a wet/dry treatment was also studied. Infilling of ettringite in entrained air voids was observed in the concretes tested. The extent of the infilling depends on the period of moist curing as well as the wet/dry treatment. The concretes with 15% Class C fly ash replacement show more infilling in their air voids. It was found that the influence of the infilling on the freeze-thaw durability relates to the air spacing factor. The greater the spacing factor, the more expansion under the freeze-thaw cycling. The infilling seems to decrease effective air content and to increase effective spacing factor. The infilling also implies that the filled air voids are water-accessible. These might lead to concrete more vulnerable to the freeze-thaw attack. By combining the above results with field observations, one may conclude that the freeze-thaw damage is a factor related to premature deterioration of portland cement concrete pavements in Iowa.

Item Type: Departmental Report
Keywords: Air voids, Concrete, Concrete pavements, Deterioration, Electron microscopy, Ettringite, Fly ash, Freeze thaw durability, Microstructure, Wet dry cycles
Subjects: Transportation
Transportation > Materials
Transportation > Roads and highways
Transportation > Research
Transportation > Research > Concrete
ID Code: 16908
Deposited By: Iowa DOT Library
Deposited On: 13 May 2014 12:13
Last Modified: 07 Jan 2015 13:09